diff mbox

[RFC,1/3] ext4: Add EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG ioctl and basic defrag functions

Message ID 49829A37.8050701@rs.jp.nec.com
State Superseded, archived
Headers show

Commit Message

Akira Fujita Jan. 30, 2009, 6:12 a.m. UTC
ext4: online defrag -- Add EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG ioctl and basic defrag functions.

From: Akira Fujita <a-fujita@rs.jp.nec.com>

The EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG exchanges the blocks between org_fd and dest_fd,
then write the file data of org_fd to dest_fd.
ext4_defrag() is the main fucntion of ext4 online defrag,
this patch includes it and defrag basic functions.


Signed-off-by: Akira Fujita <a-fujita@rs.jp.nec.com>
Signed-off-by: Takashi Sato <t-sato@yk.jp.nec.com>
Signed-off-by: Kazuya Mio <k-mio@sx.jp.nec.com>
---
 fs/ext4/Makefile       |   13 ++
 fs/ext4/defrag.c       |  477 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/ext4/ext4.h         |   18 ++-
 fs/ext4/ext4_extents.h |    4 +
 fs/ext4/extents.c      |    4 +-
 fs/ext4/ioctl.c        |   44 ++++-
 6 files changed, 544 insertions(+), 16 deletions(-)

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Comments

Theodore Y. Ts'o Feb. 4, 2009, 2:54 p.m. UTC | #1
On Fri, Jan 30, 2009 at 03:12:07PM +0900, Akira Fujita wrote:
> ext4: online defrag -- Add EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG ioctl and basic defrag functions.
> 
> From: Akira Fujita <a-fujita@rs.jp.nec.com>

Thanks, this patch is much better.  Eventually I suspect you'll want
to add an ioctl to control the allocation of blocks to the donor
inode, but that can certainly come later.

I would combine the two kernel patches into one.  There's no point
separating them into separate patches; the maximum message size
through the vger mailing lists is something like 100k, and the two
patches combined are under 43k.  The first patch won't function very
well with two key functions stubbed out with "return 0;", anyway....

Also, I note that you are moving pages from the donor inode to the
target inode one page at a time.  It would be faster and involve less
journal activity to move an extent at a time; after all, the donor fd
should be no more fragmented than the source fd, or the userspace
program shoudl have noticed and not attempted to call the defrag
ioctl.  Therefore, nearly all of the time, it should be possible to
move a contiguous range of blocks at a time from the donor to the
source without increasing the number of extents in the target inode's
leaf node.

You may also want to consider whether it is truly worth it to swap the
block assignments between the donor and the target inode, and whether
it might be easier simply to release the blocks that had previously
belonged to the target inode, and simply decrement the length of the
extent and/or delete the extent from the donor inode altogether.  That
removes the need to split any leaf blocks in the donor inode's extent
tree, since it is guaranteed to always stay the same size or become
smaller.

> +{
> +	if (!S_ISREG(org_inode->i_mode) || !S_ISREG(dest_inode->i_mode)) {
> +		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: "
> +			"The argument files should be regular file\n");
> +		return -EINVAL;
> +	}

Random printks is probably a bad idea; this should only be done if
debugging is enabled, and if the goal is debugging, it would be more
useful if the code printed more information that might be useful to
someone trying to debug the userspaceprogram (such as the inode
numbers passed to the ioctl, in the above example).

> +		if (start + len > i_size_read(org_inode)) {
> +			printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: Adjust defrag length "
> +				" because it[%u] is larger than original "
> +				"file size\n", len);
> +			len = i_size_read(org_inode) - start;
> +		}

The function ext4_defrag_check_arguments() is called before any
locking is done.  So you could potentially have a race where target
inode gets truncated by another process between when the userspace
program determined the parameters to the defrag ioctl and when the
defrag ioctl starts executing.

> +/**
> + * ext4_defrag_lock_two - acquire two inodes' lock
> + *
> + * @first:		inode structure to be locked first
> + * @second:		inode structure to be locked second
> + *
> + * Lock mutex and semaphore of the two inodes (@first and @second). First
> + * @first is locked and then @second is locked. Note that we *must* set
> + * arguments in order of small address.
> + */
> +static void ext4_defrag_lock_two(struct inode *first, struct inode *second)

This function only gets called once, so it doesn't matter that much,
but you can reduce the stack space in the caller (ext4_defrag()) by
doing the comparison in the function, and not saving the result.
i.e., change this:

+     /* Lock the lower address inode first */
+     if (ip > tip) {
+     	 ip = dest_inode;
+	 tip = org_inode;
+     }
+     ext4_defrag_lock_two(ip, tip);

to this:

      ext4_defrag_lock_two(org_inode, dest_inode);

Note that you don't need to save ip and tip on the stack, because it
is the _locking_ order which matters in order to prevent deadlocks.
The order in which the two inodes are unlocked doesn't matter.  So you
can drop the ip and tip variables from ext4_defrag(), and just arrange
to use a stable locking order in ext4_defrag_lock_two().  Personally,
I'd prefer to use the inode number (target_inode->i_ino and
donor_inode->i_ino) to provide the stable locking order, but using the
address does work.  The C language doesn't guarantee you can compare
pointers that don't come from the same array, but it's not like the
Linux kernel is likely to be ported to a architecture such as the
Honeywell DPS8 (which ran Multics :-).

							- Ted
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Theodore Y. Ts'o Feb. 4, 2009, 2:59 p.m. UTC | #2
On Fri, Jan 30, 2009 at 03:12:07PM +0900, Akira Fujita wrote:
> + *
> + * Note that the extents of target file(@o_filp) are always converted
> + * from "uninitialized" to "initialized" after swapping the blocks
> + * between the original file and the destination one(@d_filp).
> + * In the next version, this behavior will be fixed not to change extents'
> + * initializing status.

Note also that if the extent in the target file is "uninitialized",
it's not necessary to force the page into memory and then force it to
be written out again.  This is important if the file involved is a
large database file which still has large areas preallocated, but not
yet initialized.

						- Ted
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diff mbox

Patch

diff --git a/fs/ext4/Makefile b/fs/ext4/Makefile
index a8ff003..e7fd8ba 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/Makefile
+++ b/fs/ext4/Makefile
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@  obj-$(CONFIG_EXT4_FS) += ext4.o

 ext4-y	:= balloc.o bitmap.o dir.o file.o fsync.o ialloc.o inode.o \
 		   ioctl.o namei.o super.o symlink.o hash.o resize.o extents.o \
-		   ext4_jbd2.o migrate.o mballoc.o
+		   ext4_jbd2.o migrate.o mballoc.o defrag.o

 ext4-$(CONFIG_EXT4_FS_XATTR)		+= xattr.o xattr_user.o xattr_trusted.o
 ext4-$(CONFIG_EXT4_FS_POSIX_ACL)	+= acl.o
diff --git a/fs/ext4/defrag.c b/fs/ext4/defrag.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c9f903e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/ext4/defrag.c
@@ -0,0 +1,477 @@ 
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2009, NEC Software Tohoku, Ltd.
+ * Written by Takashi Sato <t-sato@yk.jp.nec.com>
+ *            Akira Fujita <a-fujita@rs.jp.nec.com>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of version 2.1 of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+ * as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ */
+
+/* Online defragmentation for EXT4 */
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/quotaops.h>
+#include "ext4_jbd2.h"
+#include "ext4_extents.h"
+#include "group.h"
+
+/**
+ * ext4_defrag_next_extent - Search for the next extent and set it to "extent"
+ *
+ * @inode:	inode which is searched
+ * @path:	this will obtain data for the next extent
+ * @extent:	pointer to the next extent we have just gotten
+ *
+ * Search the next extent in the array of ext4_ext_path structure (@org_path)
+ * and set it to ext4_extent structure (@extent). In addition, the member of
+ * @org_path (->p_ext) also points the next extent. Return 0 on success, 1 if
+ * ext4_ext_path structure refers to the last extent, or a negative error
+ * value on failure.
+ */
+static int
+ext4_defrag_next_extent(struct inode *inode, struct ext4_ext_path *path,
+			struct ext4_extent **extent)
+{
+	int ppos, leaf_ppos = path->p_depth;
+
+	ppos = leaf_ppos;
+	if (EXT_LAST_EXTENT(path[ppos].p_hdr) > path[ppos].p_ext) {
+		/* leaf block */
+		*extent = ++path[ppos].p_ext;
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	while (--ppos >= 0) {
+		if (EXT_LAST_INDEX(path[ppos].p_hdr) >
+		    path[ppos].p_idx) {
+			int cur_ppos = ppos;
+
+			/* index block */
+			path[ppos].p_idx++;
+			path[ppos].p_block = idx_pblock(path[ppos].p_idx);
+			if (path[ppos+1].p_bh)
+				brelse(path[ppos+1].p_bh);
+			path[ppos+1].p_bh =
+				sb_bread(inode->i_sb, path[ppos].p_block);
+			if (!path[ppos+1].p_bh)
+				goto err;
+			path[ppos+1].p_hdr =
+				ext_block_hdr(path[ppos+1].p_bh);
+
+			/* Halfway index block */
+			while (++cur_ppos < leaf_ppos) {
+				path[cur_ppos].p_idx =
+					EXT_FIRST_INDEX(path[cur_ppos].p_hdr);
+				path[cur_ppos].p_block =
+					idx_pblock(path[cur_ppos].p_idx);
+				if (path[cur_ppos+1].p_bh)
+					brelse(path[cur_ppos+1].p_bh);
+				path[cur_ppos+1].p_bh = sb_bread(inode->i_sb,
+					path[cur_ppos].p_block);
+				if (!path[cur_ppos+1].p_bh)
+					goto err;
+				path[cur_ppos+1].p_hdr =
+					ext_block_hdr(path[cur_ppos+1].p_bh);
+			}
+
+			/* leaf block */
+			path[leaf_ppos].p_ext = *extent =
+				EXT_FIRST_EXTENT(path[leaf_ppos].p_hdr);
+			return 0;
+		}
+	}
+	/* We found the last extent */
+	return 1;
+err:
+	if (path)
+		ext4_ext_drop_refs(path);
+	return -EIO;
+}
+
+static int
+ext4_defrag_partial(struct file *o_filp, struct inode *dest_inode,
+			pgoff_t org_page_offset, int data_offset_in_page,
+			int block_len_in_page)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * ext4_defrag_check - Check the environment whether a defrag can be done
+ *
+ * @org_inode:		original inode
+ * @dest_inode:		destination inode
+ * @start:		defrag start offset in blocks
+ * @len:		defrag size in blocks
+ *
+ * Check the arguments of ext4_defrag() whether the files can do defrag.
+ * Return 0 on success, or a negative error value on failure.
+ */
+static int
+ext4_defrag_check_arguments(struct inode *org_inode, struct inode *dest_inode,
+			ext4_lblk_t start, ext4_lblk_t len)
+{
+	if (!S_ISREG(org_inode->i_mode) || !S_ISREG(dest_inode->i_mode)) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: "
+			"The argument files should be regular file\n");
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	if (org_inode->i_rdev != dest_inode->i_rdev) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: "
+			"The argument files should be in same filesystem \n");
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	if (org_inode->i_ino == dest_inode->i_ino) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: "
+			"The argument files should not be same\n");
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/* Ext4 online defrag supports only extent based file */
+	if (!(EXT4_I(org_inode)->i_flags & EXT4_EXTENTS_FL)) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: ino[%lu] is not extents "
+					"based file\n", org_inode->i_ino);
+		return -EOPNOTSUPP;
+	}
+	if (!(EXT4_I(dest_inode)->i_flags & EXT4_EXTENTS_FL)) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: ino[%lu] is not extents "
+					"based file\n", dest_inode->i_ino);
+		return -EOPNOTSUPP;
+	}
+
+	if (i_size_read(org_inode) > i_size_read(dest_inode)) {
+		if (start >= i_size_read(dest_inode)) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: Start offset[%u] is "
+				"larger than destination file size\n",
+				start);
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+
+		if (start + len > i_size_read(dest_inode)) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: Adjust defrag length "
+				"because it[%u] is larger than destination "
+				"file size\n", len);
+			len = i_size_read(dest_inode) - start;
+		}
+	} else {
+		if (start >= i_size_read(org_inode)) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: Start offset[%u] is "
+				"larger than original file size\n", start);
+			return -EINVAL;
+		}
+
+		if (start + len > i_size_read(org_inode)) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "ext4 defrag: Adjust defrag length "
+				" because it[%u] is larger than original "
+				"file size\n", len);
+			len = i_size_read(org_inode) - start;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * ext4_defrag_lock_two - acquire two inodes' lock
+ *
+ * @first:		inode structure to be locked first
+ * @second:		inode structure to be locked second
+ *
+ * Lock mutex and semaphore of the two inodes (@first and @second). First
+ * @first is locked and then @second is locked. Note that we *must* set
+ * arguments in order of small address.
+ */
+static void ext4_defrag_lock_two(struct inode *first, struct inode *second)
+{
+	mutex_lock(&first->i_mutex);
+	down_write(&EXT4_I(first)->i_data_sem);
+
+	mutex_lock(&second->i_mutex);
+	down_write(&EXT4_I(second)->i_data_sem);
+
+	return;
+}
+
+/**
+ * ext4_defrag_unlock_two - release two inodes' lock
+ *
+ * @first:		inode structure to be released its lock first
+ * @second:		inode structure to be released its lock second
+ *
+ * Release mutex and semaphore of two inodes (@first and @second). First
+ * @first's lock is released and then @second's lock is released. Note that
+ * we *must* set arguments in order of big address.
+ */
+static void ext4_defrag_unlock_two(struct inode *first, struct inode *second)
+{
+	mutex_unlock(&first->i_mutex);
+	up_write(&EXT4_I(first)->i_data_sem);
+
+	mutex_unlock(&second->i_mutex);
+	up_write(&EXT4_I(second)->i_data_sem);
+
+	return;
+}
+
+/**
+ * ext4_defrag - Defrag the specified range of a file
+ *
+ * If no-option is specified, ext4_defrag() proceeds the following order.
+ * 1.ext4_defrag() calculates the block number where defrag terminates
+ *   by the start block number (start) and the size of defraged data
+ *   (len) specified as arguments.
+ *   If the defrag_start points a hole, the extent's start offset pointed by
+ *   ext_cur (current extent), holecheck_path, org_path are set after
+ *   hole behind.
+ * 2.Continue step 3 to step 5, until the holecheck_path points to last_extent
+ *   or the ext_cur exceeds the block_end which is last logical block number.
+ * 3.To get a length of continues area, call ext4_defrag_next_extent()
+ *   specified with the ext_cur (initial value is holecheck_path) re-cursive,
+ *   until find un-continuous extent, the start logical block number exceeds
+ *   the block_end or the extent points to the last extent.
+ * 4.Exchange the original inode data with destination inode data
+ *   from org_page_offset to seq_end_page.
+ *   The start indexes of data are specified as arguments.
+ *   That of the original inode is org_page_offset,
+ *   and that of the destination inode is dest_block_offset
+ *   (To easily handle blocksize != pagesize case, the offset for the
+ *   destination inode is block unit).
+ * 5.Update holecheck_path and org_path to points a next proceeding extent,
+ *   then returns to step 2.
+ * 6.Release holecheck_path, org_path,
+ *   and returns the len which is the size of defraged data.
+ *   The len is used for the command to calculate the file offset
+ *   where a next defrag processing start.
+ *   (Since the defrag command calls defrag_ioctl() by 64MB unit,
+ *   a file bigger than 64MB calls defrag_ioctl multiple times.)
+ *
+ * @o_filp: file structure of the original file
+ * @d_filp: file structure of the destination file
+ * @start: defrag start offset in block
+ * @len: defrag length in block
+ *
+ * This function returns the number of blocks if succeed, otherwise
+ * returns error value.
+ *
+ * Note that the extents of target file(@o_filp) are always converted
+ * from "uninitialized" to "initialized" after swapping the blocks
+ * between the original file and the destination one(@d_filp).
+ * In the next version, this behavior will be fixed not to change extents'
+ * initializing status.
+ */
+int
+ext4_defrag(struct file *o_filp, struct file *d_filp,
+		ext4_lblk_t block_start, ext4_lblk_t len)
+{
+	struct inode *org_inode = o_filp->f_dentry->d_inode;
+	struct inode *dest_inode = d_filp->f_dentry->d_inode;
+	struct inode *ip = org_inode, *tip = dest_inode;
+	struct ext4_ext_path *org_path = NULL, *holecheck_path = NULL;
+	struct ext4_extent *ext_prev, *ext_cur, *ext_dummy;
+	ext4_lblk_t block_end, seq_start, add_blocks, file_end, seq_blocks = 0;
+	ext4_lblk_t rest_blocks;
+	pgoff_t org_page_offset, seq_end_page;
+	int ret, depth, last_extent = 0;
+	int blocks_per_page;
+	int data_offset_in_page;
+	int block_len_in_page;
+
+	/* Check the filesystem environment whether defrag can be done */
+	ret = ext4_defrag_check_arguments(org_inode, dest_inode,
+						block_start, len);
+	if (ret < 0)
+		return ret;
+
+	blocks_per_page = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE >> org_inode->i_blkbits;
+	file_end = (i_size_read(org_inode) - 1) >> org_inode->i_blkbits;
+	block_end = block_start + len - 1;
+	if (file_end < block_end)
+		len -= block_end - file_end;
+
+	/* Lock the lower address inode first */
+	if (ip > tip) {
+		ip = dest_inode;
+		tip = org_inode;
+	}
+	ext4_defrag_lock_two(ip, tip);
+
+	org_path = ext4_ext_find_extent(org_inode, block_start, NULL);
+	if (IS_ERR(org_path)) {
+		ret = PTR_ERR(org_path);
+		org_path = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Get path structure to check the hole */
+	holecheck_path = ext4_ext_find_extent(org_inode, block_start, NULL);
+	if (IS_ERR(holecheck_path)) {
+		ret = PTR_ERR(holecheck_path);
+		holecheck_path = NULL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	depth = ext_depth(org_inode);
+	ext_cur = holecheck_path[depth].p_ext;
+	if (ext_cur == NULL)
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * Get proper extent whose ee_block is beyond block_start
+	 * if block_start was within the hole.
+	 */
+	if (le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) +
+		ext4_ext_get_actual_len(ext_cur) - 1 < block_start) {
+		last_extent = ext4_defrag_next_extent(org_inode,
+					holecheck_path, &ext_cur);
+		if (last_extent < 0) {
+			ret = last_extent;
+			goto out;
+		}
+		last_extent = ext4_defrag_next_extent(org_inode, org_path,
+							&ext_dummy);
+		if (last_extent < 0) {
+			ret = last_extent;
+			goto out;
+		}
+	}
+	seq_start = le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block);
+
+	/* No blocks within the specified range. */
+	if (le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) > block_end) {
+		printk(KERN_INFO "ext4 defrag: The specified range of file"
+				" may be the hole\n");
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* Adjust start blocks */
+	add_blocks = min(le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) +
+			 ext4_ext_get_actual_len(ext_cur), block_end + 1) -
+		     max(le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block), block_start);
+
+	while (!last_extent && le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) <= block_end) {
+		seq_blocks += add_blocks;
+
+		/* Adjust tail blocks */
+		if (seq_start + seq_blocks - 1 > block_end)
+			seq_blocks = block_end - seq_start + 1;
+
+		ext_prev = ext_cur;
+		last_extent = ext4_defrag_next_extent(org_inode,
+					holecheck_path, &ext_cur);
+		if (last_extent < 0) {
+			ret = last_extent;
+			break;
+		}
+		add_blocks = ext4_ext_get_actual_len(ext_cur);
+
+		/*
+		 * Extend the length of contiguous block (seq_blocks)
+		 * if extents are contiguous.
+		 */
+		if (le32_to_cpu(ext_prev->ee_block) +
+				ext4_ext_get_actual_len(ext_prev) ==
+				le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) &&
+				block_end >= le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block) &&
+				!last_extent) {
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		data_offset_in_page = seq_start % blocks_per_page;
+
+		/*
+		 * Calculate data blocks count that should be swapped
+		 * at the first page.
+		 */
+		if (data_offset_in_page + seq_blocks > blocks_per_page) {
+			/* Swapped blocks are across pages */
+			block_len_in_page =
+					blocks_per_page - data_offset_in_page;
+		} else {
+			/* Swapped blocks are in a page */
+			block_len_in_page = seq_blocks;
+		}
+
+		org_page_offset = seq_start >>
+				(PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - org_inode->i_blkbits);
+		seq_end_page = (seq_start + seq_blocks - 1) >>
+				(PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - org_inode->i_blkbits);
+		seq_start = le32_to_cpu(ext_cur->ee_block);
+		rest_blocks = seq_blocks;
+
+		/*
+		 * Discard all preallocations.
+		 * This is provisional solution.
+		 * When true ext4_mb_return_to_preallocation() is
+		 * implemented, this will be removed.
+		 */
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(org_inode);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(dest_inode);
+
+		while (org_page_offset <= seq_end_page) {
+
+			/* Swap original branches with new branches */
+			ret = ext4_defrag_partial(o_filp, dest_inode,
+				org_page_offset, data_offset_in_page,
+				block_len_in_page);
+			if (ret < 0)
+				goto out;
+
+			org_page_offset++;
+
+			data_offset_in_page = 0;
+			rest_blocks -= block_len_in_page;
+			if (rest_blocks > blocks_per_page)
+				block_len_in_page = blocks_per_page;
+			else
+				block_len_in_page = rest_blocks;
+		}
+
+		/* Decrease buffer counter */
+		if (holecheck_path)
+			ext4_ext_drop_refs(holecheck_path);
+		holecheck_path = ext4_ext_find_extent(org_inode,
+						seq_start, holecheck_path);
+		if (IS_ERR(holecheck_path)) {
+			ret = PTR_ERR(holecheck_path);
+			holecheck_path = NULL;
+			break;
+		}
+		depth = holecheck_path->p_depth;
+
+		/* Decrease buffer counter */
+		if (org_path)
+			ext4_ext_drop_refs(org_path);
+		org_path = ext4_ext_find_extent(org_inode, seq_start, org_path);
+		if (IS_ERR(org_path)) {
+			ret = PTR_ERR(org_path);
+			org_path = NULL;
+			break;
+		}
+
+		ext_cur = holecheck_path[depth].p_ext;
+		add_blocks = ext4_ext_get_actual_len(ext_cur);
+		seq_blocks = 0;
+
+	}
+out:
+	if (org_path) {
+		ext4_ext_drop_refs(org_path);
+		kfree(org_path);
+	}
+	if (holecheck_path) {
+		ext4_ext_drop_refs(holecheck_path);
+		kfree(holecheck_path);
+	}
+
+	ext4_defrag_unlock_two(tip, ip);
+
+	return ret ? ret : len;
+}
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index a1c5caa..35071f4 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -293,6 +293,7 @@  struct ext4_new_group_data {
 #define EXT4_IOC_GROUP_ADD		_IOW('f', 8, struct ext4_new_group_input)
 #define EXT4_IOC_MIGRATE		_IO('f', 9)
  /* note ioctl 11 reserved for filesystem-independent FIEMAP ioctl */
+#define EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG                 _IOW('f', 15, struct move_extent)

 /*
  * ioctl commands in 32 bit emulation
@@ -313,6 +314,13 @@  struct ext4_new_group_data {

 #define EXT4_IOC_DEBUG_DELALLOC		_IO('f', 42)

+struct move_extent {
+	int org_fd;		/* original file descriptor */
+	int dest_fd;		/* destination file descriptor */
+	ext4_lblk_t start;	/* logical offset of org_fd and dest_fd*/
+	ext4_lblk_t len;	/* exchange block length */
+};
+
 /*
  *  Mount options
  */
@@ -1016,6 +1024,10 @@  extern struct ext4_group_desc * ext4_get_group_desc(struct super_block * sb,
 						    struct buffer_head ** bh);
 extern int ext4_should_retry_alloc(struct super_block *sb, int *retries);

+/* defrag.c */
+extern int ext4_defrag(struct file *o_filp, struct file *d_filp,
+			ext4_lblk_t start, ext4_lblk_t len);
+
 /* dir.c */
 extern int ext4_check_dir_entry(const char *, struct inode *,
 				struct ext4_dir_entry_2 *,
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4_extents.h b/fs/ext4/ext4_extents.h
index 18cb67b..49a4614 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4_extents.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4_extents.h
@@ -221,12 +221,16 @@  static inline int ext4_ext_get_actual_len(struct ext4_extent *ext)
 }

 extern int ext4_ext_calc_metadata_amount(struct inode *inode, int blocks);
+extern ext4_fsblk_t ext_pblock(struct ext4_extent *ex);
 extern ext4_fsblk_t idx_pblock(struct ext4_extent_idx *);
 extern void ext4_ext_store_pblock(struct ext4_extent *, ext4_fsblk_t);
 extern int ext4_extent_tree_init(handle_t *, struct inode *);
 extern int ext4_ext_calc_credits_for_single_extent(struct inode *inode,
 						   int num,
 						   struct ext4_ext_path *path);
+extern int ext4_can_extents_be_merged(struct inode *inode,
+				      struct ext4_extent *ex1,
+				      struct ext4_extent *ex2);
 extern int ext4_ext_try_to_merge(struct inode *inode,
 				 struct ext4_ext_path *path,
 				 struct ext4_extent *);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/extents.c b/fs/ext4/extents.c
index 54bf062..a64c706 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/extents.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/extents.c
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ 
  * ext_pblock:
  * combine low and high parts of physical block number into ext4_fsblk_t
  */
-static ext4_fsblk_t ext_pblock(struct ext4_extent *ex)
+ext4_fsblk_t ext_pblock(struct ext4_extent *ex)
 {
 	ext4_fsblk_t block;

@@ -1328,7 +1328,7 @@  static int ext4_ext_correct_indexes(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 	return err;
 }

-static int
+int
 ext4_can_extents_be_merged(struct inode *inode, struct ext4_extent *ex1,
 				struct ext4_extent *ex2)
 {
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ioctl.c b/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
index 353d949..e1dde89 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/compat.h>
 #include <linux/smp_lock.h>
 #include <linux/mount.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
 #include <asm/uaccess.h>
 #include "ext4_jbd2.h"
 #include "ext4.h"
@@ -225,6 +226,38 @@  setversion_out:

 		return err;
 	}
+
+	case EXT4_IOC_DEFRAG: {
+		struct move_extent me;
+		struct file *d_filp;
+		int fput_needed;
+		int err;
+
+		if (copy_from_user(&me,
+			(struct move_extent __user *)arg, sizeof(me)))
+			return -EFAULT;
+
+
+		d_filp = fget_light(me.dest_fd, &fput_needed);
+		if (!d_filp)
+			return -EBADF;
+
+		if (!capable(CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE)) {
+			if ((current->real_cred->fsuid != inode->i_uid) ||
+			    !(inode->i_mode & S_IRUSR) ||
+			    !(d_filp->f_dentry->d_inode->i_mode & S_IRUSR)) {
+				fput_light(d_filp, fput_needed);
+				return -EACCES;
+			}
+		}
+
+		err = ext4_defrag(filp, d_filp, me.start, me.len);
+
+		fput_light(d_filp, fput_needed);
+
+		return err;
+	}
+
 	case EXT4_IOC_GROUP_ADD: {
 		struct ext4_new_group_data input;
 		struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;