[04/13] ext4: import high level design chapter from wiki page

Message ID 153124302941.17949.13491749883201095728.stgit@magnolia
State New
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Series
  • ext4: major documentation surgery
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Commit Message

Darrick J. Wong July 10, 2018, 5:17 p.m.
From: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>

Import the chapter about high level design from the on-disk format wiki
page into the kernel documentation.

Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
---
 .../filesystems/ext4/ondisk/allocators.rst         |   56 ++++++++
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/bigalloc.rst |   22 +++
 .../filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blockgroup.rst         |  135 +++++++++++++++++++
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blocks.rst   |  142 ++++++++++++++++++++
 .../filesystems/ext4/ondisk/checksums.rst          |   73 ++++++++++
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/eainode.rst  |   18 +++
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/index.rst    |    1 
 .../filesystems/ext4/ondisk/inlinedata.rst         |   37 +++++
 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/overview.rst |   26 ++++
 .../filesystems/ext4/ondisk/special_inodes.rst     |   38 +++++
 10 files changed, 548 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/allocators.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/bigalloc.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blockgroup.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blocks.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/checksums.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/eainode.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/inlinedata.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/overview.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/special_inodes.rst

Patch

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/allocators.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/allocators.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7aa85152ace3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/allocators.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Block and Inode Allocation Policy
+---------------------------------
+
+ext4 recognizes (better than ext3, anyway) that data locality is
+generally a desirably quality of a filesystem. On a spinning disk,
+keeping related blocks near each other reduces the amount of movement
+that the head actuator and disk must perform to access a data block,
+thus speeding up disk IO. On an SSD there of course are no moving parts,
+but locality can increase the size of each transfer request while
+reducing the total number of requests. This locality may also have the
+effect of concentrating writes on a single erase block, which can speed
+up file rewrites significantly. Therefore, it is useful to reduce
+fragmentation whenever possible.
+
+The first tool that ext4 uses to combat fragmentation is the multi-block
+allocator. When a file is first created, the block allocator
+speculatively allocates 8KiB of disk space to the file on the assumption
+that the space will get written soon. When the file is closed, the
+unused speculative allocations are of course freed, but if the
+speculation is correct (typically the case for full writes of small
+files) then the file data gets written out in a single multi-block
+extent. A second related trick that ext4 uses is delayed allocation.
+Under this scheme, when a file needs more blocks to absorb file writes,
+the filesystem defers deciding the exact placement on the disk until all
+the dirty buffers are being written out to disk. By not committing to a
+particular placement until it's absolutely necessary (the commit timeout
+is hit, or sync() is called, or the kernel runs out of memory), the hope
+is that the filesystem can make better location decisions.
+
+The third trick that ext4 (and ext3) uses is that it tries to keep a
+file's data blocks in the same block group as its inode. This cuts down
+on the seek penalty when the filesystem first has to read a file's inode
+to learn where the file's data blocks live and then seek over to the
+file's data blocks to begin I/O operations.
+
+The fourth trick is that all the inodes in a directory are placed in the
+same block group as the directory, when feasible. The working assumption
+here is that all the files in a directory might be related, therefore it
+is useful to try to keep them all together.
+
+The fifth trick is that the disk volume is cut up into 128MB block
+groups; these mini-containers are used as outlined above to try to
+maintain data locality. However, there is a deliberate quirk -- when a
+directory is created in the root directory, the inode allocator scans
+the block groups and puts that directory into the least heavily loaded
+block group that it can find. This encourages directories to spread out
+over a disk; as the top-level directory/file blobs fill up one block
+group, the allocators simply move on to the next block group. Allegedly
+this scheme evens out the loading on the block groups, though the author
+suspects that the directories which are so unlucky as to land towards
+the end of a spinning drive get a raw deal performance-wise.
+
+Of course if all of these mechanisms fail, one can always use e4defrag
+to defragment files.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/bigalloc.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/bigalloc.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c6d88557553c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/bigalloc.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,22 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Bigalloc
+--------
+
+At the moment, the default size of a block is 4KiB, which is a commonly
+supported page size on most MMU-capable hardware. This is fortunate, as
+ext4 code is not prepared to handle the case where the block size
+exceeds the page size. However, for a filesystem of mostly huge files,
+it is desirable to be able to allocate disk blocks in units of multiple
+blocks to reduce both fragmentation and metadata overhead. The
+`bigalloc <Bigalloc>`__ feature provides exactly this ability. The
+administrator can set a block cluster size at mkfs time (which is stored
+in the s\_log\_cluster\_size field in the superblock); from then on, the
+block bitmaps track clusters, not individual blocks. This means that
+block groups can be several gigabytes in size (instead of just 128MiB);
+however, the minimum allocation unit becomes a cluster, not a block,
+even for directories. TaoBao had a patchset to extend the “use units of
+clusters instead of blocks” to the extent tree, though it is not clear
+where those patches went-- they eventually morphed into “extent tree v2”
+but that code has not landed as of May 2015.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blockgroup.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blockgroup.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..baf888e4c06a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blockgroup.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,135 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Layout
+------
+
+The layout of a standard block group is approximately as follows (each
+of these fields is discussed in a separate section below):
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Group 0 Padding
+     - ext4 Super Block
+     - Group Descriptors
+     - Reserved GDT Blocks
+     - Data Block Bitmap
+     - inode Bitmap
+     - inode Table
+     - Data Blocks
+   * - 1024 bytes
+     - 1 block
+     - many blocks
+     - many blocks
+     - 1 block
+     - 1 block
+     - many blocks
+     - many more blocks
+
+For the special case of block group 0, the first 1024 bytes are unused,
+to allow for the installation of x86 boot sectors and other oddities.
+The superblock will start at offset 1024 bytes, whichever block that
+happens to be (usually 0). However, if for some reason the block size =
+1024, then block 0 is marked in use and the superblock goes in block 1.
+For all other block groups, there is no padding.
+
+The ext4 driver primarily works with the superblock and the group
+descriptors that are found in block group 0. Redundant copies of the
+superblock and group descriptors are written to some of the block groups
+across the disk in case the beginning of the disk gets trashed, though
+not all block groups necessarily host a redundant copy (see following
+paragraph for more details). If the group does not have a redundant
+copy, the block group begins with the data block bitmap. Note also that
+when the filesystem is freshly formatted, mkfs will allocate “reserve
+GDT block” space after the block group descriptors and before the start
+of the block bitmaps to allow for future expansion of the filesystem. By
+default, a filesystem is allowed to increase in size by a factor of
+1024x over the original filesystem size.
+
+The location of the inode table is given by ``grp.bg_inode_table_*``. It
+is continuous range of blocks large enough to contain
+``sb.s_inodes_per_group * sb.s_inode_size`` bytes.
+
+As for the ordering of items in a block group, it is generally
+established that the super block and the group descriptor table, if
+present, will be at the beginning of the block group. The bitmaps and
+the inode table can be anywhere, and it is quite possible for the
+bitmaps to come after the inode table, or for both to be in different
+groups (flex\_bg). Leftover space is used for file data blocks, indirect
+block maps, extent tree blocks, and extended attributes.
+
+Flexible Block Groups
+---------------------
+
+Starting in ext4, there is a new feature called flexible block groups
+(flex\_bg). In a flex\_bg, several block groups are tied together as one
+logical block group; the bitmap spaces and the inode table space in the
+first block group of the flex\_bg are expanded to include the bitmaps
+and inode tables of all other block groups in the flex\_bg. For example,
+if the flex\_bg size is 4, then group 0 will contain (in order) the
+superblock, group descriptors, data block bitmaps for groups 0-3, inode
+bitmaps for groups 0-3, inode tables for groups 0-3, and the remaining
+space in group 0 is for file data. The effect of this is to group the
+block metadata close together for faster loading, and to enable large
+files to be continuous on disk. Backup copies of the superblock and
+group descriptors are always at the beginning of block groups, even if
+flex\_bg is enabled. The number of block groups that make up a flex\_bg
+is given by 2 ^ ``sb.s_log_groups_per_flex``.
+
+Meta Block Groups
+-----------------
+
+Without the option META\_BG, for safety concerns, all block group
+descriptors copies are kept in the first block group. Given the default
+128MiB(2^27 bytes) block group size and 64-byte group descriptors, ext4
+can have at most 2^27/64 = 2^21 block groups. This limits the entire
+filesystem size to 2^21 ∗ 2^27 = 2^48bytes or 256TiB.
+
+The solution to this problem is to use the metablock group feature
+(META\_BG), which is already in ext3 for all 2.6 releases. With the
+META\_BG feature, ext4 filesystems are partitioned into many metablock
+groups. Each metablock group is a cluster of block groups whose group
+descriptor structures can be stored in a single disk block. For ext4
+filesystems with 4 KB block size, a single metablock group partition
+includes 64 block groups, or 8 GiB of disk space. The metablock group
+feature moves the location of the group descriptors from the congested
+first block group of the whole filesystem into the first group of each
+metablock group itself. The backups are in the second and last group of
+each metablock group. This increases the 2^21 maximum block groups limit
+to the hard limit 2^32, allowing support for a 512PiB filesystem.
+
+The change in the filesystem format replaces the current scheme where
+the superblock is followed by a variable-length set of block group
+descriptors. Instead, the superblock and a single block group descriptor
+block is placed at the beginning of the first, second, and last block
+groups in a meta-block group. A meta-block group is a collection of
+block groups which can be described by a single block group descriptor
+block. Since the size of the block group descriptor structure is 32
+bytes, a meta-block group contains 32 block groups for filesystems with
+a 1KB block size, and 128 block groups for filesystems with a 4KB
+blocksize. Filesystems can either be created using this new block group
+descriptor layout, or existing filesystems can be resized on-line, and
+the field s\_first\_meta\_bg in the superblock will indicate the first
+block group using this new layout.
+
+Please see an important note about ``BLOCK_UNINIT`` in the section about
+block and inode bitmaps.
+
+Lazy Block Group Initialization
+-------------------------------
+
+A new feature for ext4 are three block group descriptor flags that
+enable mkfs to skip initializing other parts of the block group
+metadata. Specifically, the INODE\_UNINIT and BLOCK\_UNINIT flags mean
+that the inode and block bitmaps for that group can be calculated and
+therefore the on-disk bitmap blocks are not initialized. This is
+generally the case for an empty block group or a block group containing
+only fixed-location block group metadata. The INODE\_ZEROED flag means
+that the inode table has been initialized; mkfs will unset this flag and
+rely on the kernel to initialize the inode tables in the background.
+
+By not writing zeroes to the bitmaps and inode table, mkfs time is
+reduced considerably. Note the feature flag is RO\_COMPAT\_GDT\_CSUM,
+but the dumpe2fs output prints this as “uninit\_bg”. They are the same
+thing.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blocks.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blocks.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..73d4dc0f7bda
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/blocks.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,142 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Blocks
+------
+
+ext4 allocates storage space in units of “blocks”. A block is a group of
+sectors between 1KiB and 64KiB, and the number of sectors must be an
+integral power of 2. Blocks are in turn grouped into larger units called
+block groups. Block size is specified at mkfs time and typically is
+4KiB. You may experience mounting problems if block size is greater than
+page size (i.e. 64KiB blocks on a i386 which only has 4KiB memory
+pages). By default a filesystem can contain 2^32 blocks; if the '64bit'
+feature is enabled, then a filesystem can have 2^64 blocks.
+
+For 32-bit filesystems, limits are as follows:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 1 1 1 1 1
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Item
+     - 1KiB
+     - 2KiB
+     - 4KiB
+     - 64KiB
+   * - Blocks
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+   * - Inodes
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+   * - File System Size
+     - 4TiB
+     - 8TiB
+     - 16TiB
+     - 256PiB
+   * - Blocks Per Block Group
+     - 8,192
+     - 16,384
+     - 32,768
+     - 524,288
+   * - Inodes Per Block Group
+     - 8,192
+     - 16,384
+     - 32,768
+     - 524,288
+   * - Block Group Size
+     - 8MiB
+     - 32MiB
+     - 128MiB
+     - 32GiB
+   * - Blocks Per File, Extents
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+   * - Blocks Per File, Block Maps
+     - 16,843,020
+     - 134,480,396
+     - 1,074,791,436
+     - 4,398,314,962,956 (really 2^32 due to field size limitations)
+   * - File Size, Extents
+     - 4TiB
+     - 8TiB
+     - 16TiB
+     - 256TiB
+   * - File Size, Block Maps
+     - 16GiB
+     - 256GiB
+     - 4TiB
+     - 256TiB
+
+For 64-bit filesystems, limits are as follows:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 1 1 1 1 1
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Item
+     - 1KiB
+     - 2KiB
+     - 4KiB
+     - 64KiB
+   * - Blocks
+     - 2^64
+     - 2^64
+     - 2^64
+     - 2^64
+   * - Inodes
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+   * - File System Size
+     - 16ZiB
+     - 32ZiB
+     - 64ZiB
+     - 1YiB
+   * - Blocks Per Block Group
+     - 8,192
+     - 16,384
+     - 32,768
+     - 524,288
+   * - Inodes Per Block Group
+     - 8,192
+     - 16,384
+     - 32,768
+     - 524,288
+   * - Block Group Size
+     - 8MiB
+     - 32MiB
+     - 128MiB
+     - 32GiB
+   * - Blocks Per File, Extents
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+     - 2^32
+   * - Blocks Per File, Block Maps
+     - 16,843,020
+     - 134,480,396
+     - 1,074,791,436
+     - 4,398,314,962,956 (really 2^32 due to field size limitations)
+   * - File Size, Extents
+     - 4TiB
+     - 8TiB
+     - 16TiB
+     - 256TiB
+   * - File Size, Block Maps
+     - 16GiB
+     - 256GiB
+     - 4TiB
+     - 256TiB
+
+Note: Files not using extents (i.e. files using block maps) must be
+placed within the first 2^32 blocks of a filesystem. Files with extents
+must be placed within the first 2^48 blocks of a filesystem. It's not
+clear what happens with larger filesystems.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/checksums.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/checksums.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9d6a793b2e03
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/checksums.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,73 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Checksums
+---------
+
+Starting in early 2012, metadata checksums were added to all major ext4
+and jbd2 data structures. The associated feature flag is metadata\_csum.
+The desired checksum algorithm is indicated in the superblock, though as
+of October 2012 the only supported algorithm is crc32c. Some data
+structures did not have space to fit a full 32-bit checksum, so only the
+lower 16 bits are stored. Enabling the 64bit feature increases the data
+structure size so that full 32-bit checksums can be stored for many data
+structures. However, existing 32-bit filesystems cannot be extended to
+enable 64bit mode, at least not without the experimental resize2fs
+patches to do so.
+
+Existing filesystems can have checksumming added by running
+``tune2fs -O metadata_csum`` against the underlying device. If tune2fs
+encounters directory blocks that lack sufficient empty space to add a
+checksum, it will request that you run ``e2fsck -D`` to have the
+directories rebuilt with checksums. This has the added benefit of
+removing slack space from the directory files and rebalancing the htree
+indexes. If you \_ignore\_ this step, your directories will not be
+protected by a checksum!
+
+The following table describes the data elements that go into each type
+of checksum. The checksum function is whatever the superblock describes
+(crc32c as of October 2013) unless noted otherwise.
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 1 1 4
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Metadata
+     - Length
+     - Ingredients
+   * - Superblock
+     - \_\_le32
+     - The entire superblock up to the checksum field. The UUID lives inside
+       the superblock.
+   * - MMP
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + the entire MMP block up to the checksum field.
+   * - Extended Attributes
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + the entire extended attribute block. The checksum field is set to
+       zero.
+   * - Directory Entries
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + inode number + inode generation + the directory block up to the
+       fake entry enclosing the checksum field.
+   * - HTREE Nodes
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + inode number + inode generation + all valid extents + HTREE tail.
+       The checksum field is set to zero.
+   * - Extents
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + inode number + inode generation + the entire extent block up to
+       the checksum field.
+   * - Bitmaps
+     - \_\_le32 or \_\_le16
+     - UUID + the entire bitmap. Checksums are stored in the group descriptor,
+       and truncated if the group descriptor size is 32 bytes (i.e. ^64bit)
+   * - Inodes
+     - \_\_le32
+     - UUID + inode number + inode generation + the entire inode. The checksum
+       field is set to zero. Each inode has its own checksum.
+   * - Group Descriptors
+     - \_\_le16
+     - If metadata\_csum, then UUID + group number + the entire descriptor;
+       else if gdt\_csum, then crc16(UUID + group number + the entire
+       descriptor). In all cases, only the lower 16 bits are stored.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/eainode.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/eainode.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ecc0d01a0a72
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/eainode.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Large Extended Attribute Values
+-------------------------------
+
+To enable ext4 to store extended attribute values that do not fit in the
+inode or in the single extended attribute block attached to an inode,
+the EA\_INODE feature allows us to store the value in the data blocks of
+a regular file inode. This “EA inode” is linked only from the extended
+attribute name index and must not appear in a directory entry. The
+inode's i\_atime field is used to store a checksum of the xattr value;
+and i\_ctime/i\_version store a 64-bit reference count, which enables
+sharing of large xattr values between multiple owning inodes. For
+backward compatibility with older versions of this feature, the
+i\_mtime/i\_generation *may* store a back-reference to the inode number
+and i\_generation of the **one** owning inode (in cases where the EA
+inode is not referenced by multiple inodes) to verify that the EA inode
+is the correct one being accessed.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/index.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/index.rst
index 98cde12ee8cb..282ba197b6b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/index.rst
@@ -4,3 +4,4 @@ 
 Data Structures and Algorithms
 ==============================
 .. include:: about.rst
+.. include:: overview.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/inlinedata.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/inlinedata.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d1075178ce0b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/inlinedata.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Inline Data
+-----------
+
+The inline data feature was designed to handle the case that a file's
+data is so tiny that it readily fits inside the inode, which
+(theoretically) reduces disk block consumption and reduces seeks. If the
+file is smaller than 60 bytes, then the data are stored inline in
+``inode.i_block``. If the rest of the file would fit inside the extended
+attribute space, then it might be found as an extended attribute
+“system.data” within the inode body (“ibody EA”). This of course
+constrains the amount of extended attributes one can attach to an inode.
+If the data size increases beyond i\_block + ibody EA, a regular block
+is allocated and the contents moved to that block.
+
+Pending a change to compact the extended attribute key used to store
+inline data, one ought to be able to store 160 bytes of data in a
+256-byte inode (as of June 2015, when i\_extra\_isize is 28). Prior to
+that, the limit was 156 bytes due to inefficient use of inode space.
+
+The inline data feature requires the presence of an extended attribute
+for “system.data”, even if the attribute value is zero length.
+
+Inline Directories
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The first four bytes of i\_block are the inode number of the parent
+directory. Following that is a 56-byte space for an array of directory
+entries; see ``struct ext4_dir_entry``. If there is a “system.data”
+attribute in the inode body, the EA value is an array of
+``struct ext4_dir_entry`` as well. Note that for inline directories, the
+i\_block and EA space are treated as separate dirent blocks; directory
+entries cannot span the two.
+
+Inline directory entries are not checksummed, as the inode checksum
+should protect all inline data contents.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/overview.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/overview.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cbab18baba12
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/overview.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+High Level Design
+=================
+
+An ext4 file system is split into a series of block groups. To reduce
+performance difficulties due to fragmentation, the block allocator tries
+very hard to keep each file's blocks within the same group, thereby
+reducing seek times. The size of a block group is specified in
+``sb.s_blocks_per_group`` blocks, though it can also calculated as 8 \*
+``block_size_in_bytes``. With the default block size of 4KiB, each group
+will contain 32,768 blocks, for a length of 128MiB. The number of block
+groups is the size of the device divided by the size of a block group.
+
+All fields in ext4 are written to disk in little-endian order. HOWEVER,
+all fields in jbd2 (the journal) are written to disk in big-endian
+order.
+
+.. include:: blocks.rst
+.. include:: blockgroup.rst
+.. include:: special_inodes.rst
+.. include:: allocators.rst
+.. include:: checksums.rst
+.. include:: bigalloc.rst
+.. include:: inlinedata.rst
+.. include:: eainode.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/special_inodes.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/special_inodes.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a82f70c9baeb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4/ondisk/special_inodes.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Special inodes
+--------------
+
+ext4 reserves some inode for special features, as follows:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 1 79
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - inode Number
+     - Purpose
+   * - 0
+     - Doesn't exist; there is no inode 0.
+   * - 1
+     - List of defective blocks.
+   * - 2
+     - Root directory.
+   * - 3
+     - User quota.
+   * - 4
+     - Group quota.
+   * - 5
+     - Boot loader.
+   * - 6
+     - Undelete directory.
+   * - 7
+     - Reserved group descriptors inode. (“resize inode”)
+   * - 8
+     - Journal inode.
+   * - 9
+     - The “exclude” inode, for snapshots(?)
+   * - 10
+     - Replica inode, used for some non-upstream feature?
+   * - 11
+     - Traditional first non-reserved inode. Usually this is the lost+found directory. See s\_first\_ino in the superblock.
+