[v9,31/51] Documentation/vm: PowerPC specific updates to memory protection keys

Message ID 1509958663-18737-32-git-send-email-linuxram@us.ibm.com
State New
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Series
  • powerpc, mm: Memory Protection Keys
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Commit Message

Ram Pai Nov. 6, 2017, 8:57 a.m.
Add documentation updates that capture PowerPC specific changes.

Signed-off-by: Thiago Jung Bauermann <bauerman@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Ram Pai <linuxram@us.ibm.com>
---
 Documentation/vm/protection-keys.txt |  126 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
 1 files changed, 101 insertions(+), 25 deletions(-)

Patch

diff --git a/Documentation/vm/protection-keys.txt b/Documentation/vm/protection-keys.txt
index fa46dcb..bc079b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/protection-keys.txt
+++ b/Documentation/vm/protection-keys.txt
@@ -1,22 +1,46 @@ 
-Memory Protection Keys for Userspace (PKU aka PKEYs) is a CPU feature
-which will be found on future Intel CPUs.
-
-Memory Protection Keys provides a mechanism for enforcing page-based
-protections, but without requiring modification of the page tables
-when an application changes protection domains.  It works by
-dedicating 4 previously ignored bits in each page table entry to a
-"protection key", giving 16 possible keys.
-
-There is also a new user-accessible register (PKRU) with two separate
-bits (Access Disable and Write Disable) for each key.  Being a CPU
-register, PKRU is inherently thread-local, potentially giving each
-thread a different set of protections from every other thread.
-
-There are two new instructions (RDPKRU/WRPKRU) for reading and writing
-to the new register.  The feature is only available in 64-bit mode,
-even though there is theoretically space in the PAE PTEs.  These
-permissions are enforced on data access only and have no effect on
-instruction fetches.
+Memory Protection Keys for Userspace (PKU aka PKEYs) is a CPU feature found on
+future Intel CPUs and on PowerPC 5 and higher CPUs.
+
+Memory Protection Keys provide a mechanism for enforcing page-based
+protections, but without requiring modification of the page tables when an
+application changes protection domains.
+
+It works by dedicating bits in each page table entry to a "protection key".
+There is also a user-accessible register with two separate bits for each
+key.  Being a CPU register, the user-accessible register is inherently
+thread-local, potentially giving each thread a different set of protections
+from every other thread.
+
+On Intel:
+
+	Four previously bits are used the page table entry giving 16 possible keys.
+
+	The user accessible register(PKRU) has a bit each per key to disable
+	access and to disable write.
+
+	The feature is only available in 64-bit mode, even though there is
+	theoretically space in the PAE PTEs.  These permissions are enforced on
+	data access only and have no effect on instruction fetches.
+
+On PowerPC:
+
+	Five bits in the page table entry are used giving 32 possible keys.
+	This support is currently for Hash Page Table mode only.
+
+	The user accessible register(AMR) has a bit each per key to disable
+	read and write. Access disable can be achieved by disabling
+	read and write.
+
+	'mtspr 0xd, mem' reads the AMR register
+	'mfspr mem, 0xd' writes into the AMR register.
+
+	Execution can  be  disabled by allocating a key with execute-disabled
+	permission. The execute-permissions on the key; however, cannot be
+	changed through a user accessible register. Instead; a powerpc specific
+	system call sys_pkey_modify() must be used. The CPU will not allow
+	execution of instruction in pages that are associated with
+	execute-disabled key.
+
 
 =========================== Syscalls ===========================
 
@@ -28,9 +52,9 @@  There are 3 system calls which directly interact with pkeys:
 			  unsigned long prot, int pkey);
 
 Before a pkey can be used, it must first be allocated with
-pkey_alloc().  An application calls the WRPKRU instruction
+pkey_alloc().  An application calls the WRPKRU/AMR instruction
 directly in order to change access permissions to memory covered
-with a key.  In this example WRPKRU is wrapped by a C function
+with a key.  In this example WRPKRU/AMR is wrapped by a C function
 called pkey_set().
 
 	int real_prot = PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE;
@@ -52,11 +76,11 @@  is no longer in use:
 	munmap(ptr, PAGE_SIZE);
 	pkey_free(pkey);
 
-(Note: pkey_set() is a wrapper for the RDPKRU and WRPKRU instructions.
+(Note: pkey_set() is a wrapper for the RDPKRU,WRPKRU or AMR instructions.
  An example implementation can be found in
- tools/testing/selftests/x86/protection_keys.c)
+ tools/testing/selftests/vm/protection_keys.c)
 
-=========================== Behavior ===========================
+=========================== Behavior =================================
 
 The kernel attempts to make protection keys consistent with the
 behavior of a plain mprotect().  For instance if you do this:
@@ -66,7 +90,7 @@  behavior of a plain mprotect().  For instance if you do this:
 
 you can expect the same effects with protection keys when doing this:
 
-	pkey = pkey_alloc(0, PKEY_DISABLE_WRITE | PKEY_DISABLE_READ);
+	pkey = pkey_alloc(0, PKEY_DISABLE_ACCESS);
 	pkey_mprotect(ptr, size, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, pkey);
 	something(ptr);
 
@@ -83,3 +107,55 @@  with a read():
 The kernel will send a SIGSEGV in both cases, but si_code will be set
 to SEGV_PKERR when violating protection keys versus SEGV_ACCERR when
 the plain mprotect() permissions are violated.
+
+========================== sysfs Interface ==========================
+
+Information about support of protection keys on the system can be
+found in the /sys/kernel/mm/protection_keys directory, which
+contains the following files:
+
+- total_keys: Shows the number of keys supported by the hardware.
+    Not all of those keys may be available for use by a process
+    because the platform or operating system may reserve some keys
+    for their own use.
+
+- usable_keys: Shows the minimum number of keys guaranteed to be
+    available for use by a process. In other words: total_keys minus
+    the keys reserved by the platform or operating system. This
+    number doesn't change to reflect keys that are already being
+    used by the process reading the file.
+
+    There may be one more key available than what is advertised in
+    this file because the kernel may use one key for mprotect()
+    calls setting up memory with execute-only permissions. This file
+    assumes that this key is being used, but if it is not the
+    process will have one more key it can use for other purposes.
+
+- disable_access_supported: Shows 'true' if the system supports keys
+    which disallow reading from a given page (i.e., the
+    PKEY_DISABLE_ACCESS flag is supported).
+
+- disable_write_supported: Shows 'true' if the system supports keys
+    which disallow writing to a given page (i.e., the
+    PKEY_DISABLE_WRITE flag is supported).
+
+- disable_execute_supported: Shows 'true' if the system supports keys
+    which disallow code execution from a given page (i.e., the
+    PKEY_DISABLE_EXECUTE flag is supported).
+
+====================================================================
+		Differences
+
+The following differences exist between x86 and power.
+
+a) powerpc (PowerPC8 onwards) *also* allows creation of a key with
+   execute-disabled.
+	The following is allowed
+	pkey = pkey_alloc(0, PKEY_DISABLE_EXECUTE);
+
+b) On powerpc the access/write permission on a key can be modified by
+   programming the AMR register from the signal handler. The changes
+   persist across signal boundaries. On x86, the PKRU specific fpregs
+   entry has to be modified to change the access/write permission on
+   a key.
+=====================================================================