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- this file
+ - info on how PCI host bridges are represented in ACPI
- the Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI) Driver Guide HOWTO and FAQ.
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+ ACPI considerations for PCI host bridges
+The basic requirement is that the ACPI namespace should describe
+*everything* that consumes address space unless there's another standard
+way for the OS to find it [1, 2]. For example, windows that are forwarded
+to PCI by a PCI host bridge should be described via ACPI devices, since the
+OS can't locate the host bridge by itself. PCI devices *below* the host
+bridge do not need to be described via ACPI, because the resources they
+consume are inside the host bridge windows, and the OS can discover them
+via the standard PCI enumeration mechanism (using config accesses to read
+and size the BARs).
+This ACPI resource description is done via _CRS objects of devices in the
+ACPI namespace . The _CRS is like a generalized PCI BAR: the OS can
+read _CRS and figure out what resource is being consumed even if it doesn't
+have a driver for the device . That's important because it means an old
+OS can work correctly even on a system with new devices unknown to the OS.
+The new devices won't do anything, but the OS can at least make sure no
+resources conflict with them.
+Static tables like MCFG, HPET, ECDT, etc., are *not* mechanisms for
+reserving address space! The static tables are for things the OS needs to
+know early in boot, before it can parse the ACPI namespace. If a new table
+is defined, an old OS needs to operate correctly even though it ignores the
+table. _CRS allows that because it is generic and understood by the old
+OS; a static table does not.
+If the OS is expected to manage a non-discoverable device described via
+ACPI, that device will have a specific _HID/_CID that tells the OS what
+driver to bind to it, and the _CRS tells the OS and the driver where the
+device's registers are.
+PCI host bridges are PNP0A03 or PNP0A08 devices. Their _CRS should
+describe all the address space they consume. This includes all the windows
+they forward down to the PCI bus, as well as bridge registers that are not
+forwarded to PCI. The bridge registers include things like secondary/
+subordinate bus registers that determine the bus range below the bridge,
+window registers that describe the apertures, etc. These are all
+device-specific, non-architected things, so the only way a PNP0A03/PNP0A08
+driver can manage them is via _PRS/_CRS/_SRS, which contain the
+device-specific details. The bridge registers also include ECAM space,
+since it is consumed by the bridge.
+ACPI defines a Consumer/Producer bit to distinguish the bridge registers
+("Consumer") from the bridge apertures ("Producer") [4, 5], but early
+BIOSes didn't use that bit correctly. The result is that the current ACPI
+spec defines Consumer/Producer only for the relatively new Extended Address
+Space descriptors; the bit should be ignored in the older QWord/DWord/Word
+Address Space descriptors. Consequently, OSes have to assume all
+QWord/DWord/Word descriptors are windows.
+Prior to the addition of Extended Address Space descriptors, the failure of
+Consumer/Producer meant there was no way to describe bridge registers in
+the PNP0A03/PNP0A08 device itself. The workaround was to describe the
+bridge registers (including ECAM space) in PNP0C02 catch-all devices .
+With the exception of ECAM, the bridge register space is device-specific
+anyway, so the generic PNP0A03/PNP0A08 driver (pci_root.c) has no need to
+know about it.
+New architectures should be able to use "Consumer" Extended Address Space
+descriptors in the PNP0A03 device for bridge registers, including ECAM,
+although a strict interpretation of  might prohibit this. Old x86 and
+ia64 kernels assume all address space descriptors, including "Consumer"
+Extended Address Space ones, are windows, so it would not be safe to
+describe bridge registers this way on those architectures.
+PNP0C02 "motherboard" devices are basically a catch-all. There's no
+programming model for them other than "don't use these resources for
+anything else." So a PNP0C02 _CRS should claim any address space that is
+(1) not claimed by _CRS under any other device object in the ACPI namespace
+and (2) should not be assigned by the OS to something else.
+The PCIe spec requires the Enhanced Configuration Access Method (ECAM)
+unless there's a standard firmware interface for config access, e.g., the
+ia64 SAL interface . A host bridge consumes ECAM memory address space
+and converts memory accesses into PCI configuration accesses. The spec
+defines the ECAM address space layout and functionality; only the base of
+the address space is device-specific. An ACPI OS learns the base address
+from either the static MCFG table or a _CBA method in the PNP0A03 device.
+The MCFG table must describe the ECAM space of non-hot pluggable host
+bridges . Since MCFG is a static table and can't be updated by hotplug,
+a _CBA method in the PNP0A03 device describes the ECAM space of a
+hot-pluggable host bridge . Note that for both MCFG and _CBA, the base
+address always corresponds to bus 0, even if the bus range below the bridge
+(which is reported via _CRS) doesn't start at 0.
+ ACPI 6.0, sec 6.1:
+ For any device that is on a non-enumerable type of bus (for example, an
+ ISA bus), OSPM enumerates the devices' identifier(s) and the ACPI
+ system firmware must supply an _HID object ... for each device to
+ enable OSPM to do that.
+ ACPI 6.0, sec 3.7:
+ The OS enumerates motherboard devices simply by reading through the
+ ACPI Namespace looking for devices with hardware IDs.
+ Each device enumerated by ACPI includes ACPI-defined objects in the
+ ACPI Namespace that report the hardware resources the device could
+ occupy [_PRS], an object that reports the resources that are currently
+ used by the device [_CRS], and objects for configuring those resources
+ [_SRS]. The information is used by the Plug and Play OS (OSPM) to
+ configure the devices.
+ ACPI 6.0, sec 6.2:
+ OSPM uses device configuration objects to configure hardware resources
+ for devices enumerated via ACPI. Device configuration objects provide
+ information about current and possible resource requirements, the
+ relationship between shared resources, and methods for configuring
+ hardware resources.
+ When OSPM enumerates a device, it calls _PRS to determine the resource
+ requirements of the device. It may also call _CRS to find the current
+ resource settings for the device. Using this information, the Plug and
+ Play system determines what resources the device should consume and
+ sets those resources by calling the device’s _SRS control method.
+ In ACPI, devices can consume resources (for example, legacy keyboards),
+ provide resources (for example, a proprietary PCI bridge), or do both.
+ Unless otherwise specified, resources for a device are assumed to be
+ taken from the nearest matching resource above the device in the device
+ ACPI 6.0, sec 126.96.36.199.1, 2, 3, 4:
+ QWord/DWord/Word Address Space Descriptor (.1, .2, .3)
+ General Flags: Bit  Ignored
+ Extended Address Space Descriptor (.4)
+ General Flags: Bit  Consumer/Producer:
+ 1–This device consumes this resource
+ 0–This device produces and consumes this resource
+ ACPI 6.0, sec 19.6.43:
+ ResourceUsage specifies whether the Memory range is consumed by
+ this device (ResourceConsumer) or passed on to child devices
+ (ResourceProducer). If nothing is specified, then
+ ResourceConsumer is assumed.
+ PCI Firmware 3.0, sec 4.1.2:
+ If the operating system does not natively comprehend reserving the
+ MMCFG region, the MMCFG region must be reserved by firmware. The
+ address range reported in the MCFG table or by _CBA method (see Section
+ 4.1.3) must be reserved by declaring a motherboard resource. For most
+ systems, the motherboard resource would appear at the root of the ACPI
+ namespace (under \_SB) in a node with a _HID of EISAID (PNP0C02), and
+ the resources in this case should not be claimed in the root PCI bus’s
+ _CRS. The resources can optionally be returned in Int15 E820 or
+ EFIGetMemoryMap as reserved memory but must always be reported through
+ ACPI as a motherboard resource.
+ PCI Express 3.0, sec 7.2.2:
+ For systems that are PC-compatible, or that do not implement a
+ processor-architecture-specific firmware interface standard that allows
+ access to the Configuration Space, the ECAM is required as defined in
+ this section.
+ PCI Firmware 3.0, sec 4.1.2:
+ The MCFG table is an ACPI table that is used to communicate the base
+ addresses corresponding to the non-hot removable PCI Segment Groups
+ range within a PCI Segment Group available to the operating system at
+ boot. This is required for the PC-compatible systems.
+ The MCFG table is only used to communicate the base addresses
+ corresponding to the PCI Segment Groups available to the system at
+ PCI Firmware 3.0, sec 4.1.3:
+ The _CBA (Memory mapped Configuration Base Address) control method is
+ an optional ACPI object that returns the 64-bit memory mapped
+ configuration base address for the hot plug capable host bridge. The
+ base address returned by _CBA is processor-relative address. The _CBA
+ control method evaluates to an Integer.
+ This control method appears under a host bridge object. When the _CBA
+ method appears under an active host bridge object, the operating system
+ evaluates this structure to identify the memory mapped configuration
+ base address corresponding to the PCI Segment Group for the bus number
+ range specified in _CRS method. An ACPI name space object that contains
+ the _CBA method must also contain a corresponding _SEG method.