Patchwork [02/19] Add support for compile time assertions

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Submitter Daniel P. Berrange
Date June 7, 2010, 2:42 p.m.
Message ID <1275921752-29420-3-git-send-email-berrange@redhat.com>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/54859/
State New
Headers show

Comments

Daniel P. Berrange - June 7, 2010, 2:42 p.m.
The verify.h header, taken from GNULIB, provides macros for
doing compile time assertions.

There are two main variants

For use in global namespace (eg header files, or global decls)

  verify(CONDITION)

For use in code blocks

  verify_true(CONDITION)

Example usage, consider if there was an enumeration of
netdev client types, with a last element MAX_NET_CLIENTS.
Consider then wanting to declare a static array with info
about each netdev client type.

This can do a compile time assertion that every type in
the enumeration is represented in the array.

  verify(ARRAY_SIZE(net_client_types) == MAX_NET_CLIENTS)

Signed-off-by: Daniel P. Berrange <berrange@redhat.com>
---
 verify.h |  164 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 files changed, 164 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 verify.h
Paolo Bonzini - June 7, 2010, 3:35 p.m.
On 06/07/2010 04:42 PM, Daniel P. Berrange wrote:
> The verify.h header, taken from GNULIB, provides macros for
> doing compile time assertions.
>
> There are two main variants
>
> For use in global namespace (eg header files, or global decls)
>
>    verify(CONDITION)

There is QEMU_BUILD_BUG_ON already.

Paolo

Patch

diff --git a/verify.h b/verify.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c18a746
--- /dev/null
+++ b/verify.h
@@ -0,0 +1,164 @@ 
+/* -*- buffer-read-only: t -*- vi: set ro: */
+/* Compile-time assert-like macros.
+
+   Copyright (C) 2005-2006, 2009-2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+
+   This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+   it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
+   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
+   (at your option) any later version.
+
+   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+   GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
+
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
+   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */
+
+/* Written by Paul Eggert, Bruno Haible, and Jim Meyering.  */
+
+#ifndef VERIFY_H
+# define VERIFY_H 1
+
+/* Each of these macros verifies that its argument R is nonzero.  To
+   be portable, R should be an integer constant expression.  Unlike
+   assert (R), there is no run-time overhead.
+
+   There are two macros, since no single macro can be used in all
+   contexts in C.  verify_true (R) is for scalar contexts, including
+   integer constant expression contexts.  verify (R) is for declaration
+   contexts, e.g., the top level.
+
+   Symbols ending in "__" are private to this header.
+
+   The code below uses several ideas.
+
+   * The first step is ((R) ? 1 : -1).  Given an expression R, of
+     integral or boolean or floating-point type, this yields an
+     expression of integral type, whose value is later verified to be
+     constant and nonnegative.
+
+   * Next this expression W is wrapped in a type
+     struct verify_type__ { unsigned int verify_error_if_negative_size__: W; }.
+     If W is negative, this yields a compile-time error.  No compiler can
+     deal with a bit-field of negative size.
+
+     One might think that an array size check would have the same
+     effect, that is, that the type struct { unsigned int dummy[W]; }
+     would work as well.  However, inside a function, some compilers
+     (such as C++ compilers and GNU C) allow local parameters and
+     variables inside array size expressions.  With these compilers,
+     an array size check would not properly diagnose this misuse of
+     the verify macro:
+
+       void function (int n) { verify (n < 0); }
+
+   * For the verify macro, the struct verify_type__ will need to
+     somehow be embedded into a declaration.  To be portable, this
+     declaration must declare an object, a constant, a function, or a
+     typedef name.  If the declared entity uses the type directly,
+     such as in
+
+       struct dummy {...};
+       typedef struct {...} dummy;
+       extern struct {...} *dummy;
+       extern void dummy (struct {...} *);
+       extern struct {...} *dummy (void);
+
+     two uses of the verify macro would yield colliding declarations
+     if the entity names are not disambiguated.  A workaround is to
+     attach the current line number to the entity name:
+
+       #define _GL_CONCAT0(x, y) x##y
+       #define _GL_CONCAT(x, y) _GL_CONCAT0 (x, y)
+       extern struct {...} * _GL_CONCAT (dummy, __LINE__);
+
+     But this has the problem that two invocations of verify from
+     within the same macro would collide, since the __LINE__ value
+     would be the same for both invocations.  (The GCC __COUNTER__
+     macro solves this problem, but is not portable.)
+
+     A solution is to use the sizeof operator.  It yields a number,
+     getting rid of the identity of the type.  Declarations like
+
+       extern int dummy [sizeof (struct {...})];
+       extern void dummy (int [sizeof (struct {...})]);
+       extern int (*dummy (void)) [sizeof (struct {...})];
+
+     can be repeated.
+
+   * Should the implementation use a named struct or an unnamed struct?
+     Which of the following alternatives can be used?
+
+       extern int dummy [sizeof (struct {...})];
+       extern int dummy [sizeof (struct verify_type__ {...})];
+       extern void dummy (int [sizeof (struct {...})]);
+       extern void dummy (int [sizeof (struct verify_type__ {...})]);
+       extern int (*dummy (void)) [sizeof (struct {...})];
+       extern int (*dummy (void)) [sizeof (struct verify_type__ {...})];
+
+     In the second and sixth case, the struct type is exported to the
+     outer scope; two such declarations therefore collide.  GCC warns
+     about the first, third, and fourth cases.  So the only remaining
+     possibility is the fifth case:
+
+       extern int (*dummy (void)) [sizeof (struct {...})];
+
+   * GCC warns about duplicate declarations of the dummy function if
+     -Wredundant_decls is used.  GCC 4.3 and later have a builtin
+     __COUNTER__ macro that can let us generate unique identifiers for
+     each dummy function, to suppress this warning.
+
+   * This implementation exploits the fact that GCC does not warn about
+     the last declaration mentioned above.  If a future version of GCC
+     introduces a warning for this, the problem could be worked around
+     by using code specialized to GCC, just as __COUNTER__ is already
+     being used if available.
+
+       #if 4 <= __GNUC__
+       # define verify(R) [another version to keep GCC happy]
+       #endif
+
+   * In C++, any struct definition inside sizeof is invalid.
+     Use a template type to work around the problem.  */
+
+/* Concatenate two preprocessor tokens.  */
+# define _GL_CONCAT(x, y) _GL_CONCAT0 (x, y)
+# define _GL_CONCAT0(x, y) x##y
+
+/* _GL_COUNTER is an integer, preferably one that changes each time we
+   use it.  Use __COUNTER__ if it works, falling back on __LINE__
+   otherwise.  __LINE__ isn't perfect, but it's better than a
+   constant.  */
+# if defined __COUNTER__ && __COUNTER__ != __COUNTER__
+#  define _GL_COUNTER __COUNTER__
+# else
+#  define _GL_COUNTER __LINE__
+# endif
+
+/* Generate a symbol with the given prefix, making it unique if
+   possible.  */
+# define _GL_GENSYM(prefix) _GL_CONCAT (prefix, _GL_COUNTER)
+
+/* Verify requirement R at compile-time, as an integer constant expression.
+   Return 1.  */
+
+# ifdef __cplusplus
+template <int w>
+  struct verify_type__ { unsigned int verify_error_if_negative_size__: w; };
+#  define verify_true(R) \
+     (!!sizeof (verify_type__<(R) ? 1 : -1>))
+# else
+#  define verify_true(R) \
+     (!!sizeof \
+      (struct { unsigned int verify_error_if_negative_size__: (R) ? 1 : -1; }))
+# endif
+
+/* Verify requirement R at compile-time, as a declaration without a
+   trailing ';'.  */
+
+# define verify(R) \
+    extern int (* _GL_GENSYM (verify_function) (void)) [verify_true (R)]
+
+#endif