Patchwork virtio: Add memory statistics reporting to the balloon driver (V7)

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Submitter Adam Litke
Date Jan. 15, 2010, 7:54 p.m.
Message ID <1263585269.3536.72.camel@aglitke>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/42992/
State New
Headers show

Comments

Adam Litke - Jan. 15, 2010, 7:54 p.m.
This version improves support for multiple monitors and has been ported up to
HEAD as of 01/14.

Changes since V6:
 - Integrated with virtio qdev feature bit changes
   (specifically: Use VirtIODevice 'guest_features' to check if memory stats
   is a negotiated feature)
 - Track which monitor initiated the most recent stats request.  Now it does the
   Right Thing(tm) with multiple monitors making parallel requests.

Changes since V5:
 - Asynchronous query-balloon mode for QMP
 - Add timeout to prevent hanging the user monitor in synchronous mode

Changes since V4:
 - Virtio spec updated: http://ozlabs.org/~rusty/virtio-spec/virtio-spec-0.8.2.pdf
 - Guest-side Linux implementation applied by Rusty
 - Start using the QObject infrastructure
 - All endian conversions done in the host
 - Report stats that reference a quantity of memory in bytes

Changes since V3:
 - Increase stat field size to 64 bits
 - Report all sizes in kb (not pages)
 - Drop anon_pages stat

Changes since V2:
 - Use a virtqueue for communication instead of the device config space

Changes since V1:
 - In the monitor, print all stats on one line with less abbreviated names
 - Coding style changes

When using ballooning to manage overcommitted memory on a host, a system for
guests to communicate their memory usage to the host can provide information
that will minimize the impact of ballooning on the guests.  The current method
employs a daemon running in each guest that communicates memory statistics to a
host daemon at a specified time interval.  The host daemon aggregates this
information and inflates and/or deflates balloons according to the level of
host memory pressure.  This approach is effective but overly complex since a
daemon must be installed inside each guest and coordinated to communicate with
the host.  A simpler approach is to collect memory statistics in the virtio
balloon driver and communicate them directly to the hypervisor.

Signed-off-by: Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com>
To: Anthony Liguori <aliguori@us.ibm.com>
Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
Cc: Luiz Capitulino <lcapitulino@redhat.com>
Cc: qemu-devel@nongnu.org
Luiz Capitulino - Jan. 18, 2010, 2:12 p.m.
On Fri, 15 Jan 2010 13:54:29 -0600
Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com> wrote:

> This version improves support for multiple monitors and has been ported up to
> HEAD as of 01/14.

 Overall review on the Monitor related changes seems ok, but I'm not sure
how I should enable it.

Patch

diff --git a/balloon.h b/balloon.h
index 60b4a5d..684ea9e 100644
--- a/balloon.h
+++ b/balloon.h
@@ -16,12 +16,15 @@ 
 
 #include "cpu-defs.h"
 
-typedef ram_addr_t (QEMUBalloonEvent)(void *opaque, ram_addr_t target);
+/* Timeout for synchronous stats requests (in seconds) */
+#define QEMU_BALLOON_SYNC_TIMEOUT 5
+
+typedef void (QEMUBalloonEvent)(void *opaque, ram_addr_t target, Monitor *mon);
 
 void qemu_add_balloon_handler(QEMUBalloonEvent *func, void *opaque);
 
-void qemu_balloon(ram_addr_t target);
+int qemu_balloon(ram_addr_t target);
 
-ram_addr_t qemu_balloon_status(void);
+int qemu_balloon_status(Monitor *mon);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/hw/virtio-balloon.c b/hw/virtio-balloon.c
index e17880f..b68bad7 100644
--- a/hw/virtio-balloon.c
+++ b/hw/virtio-balloon.c
@@ -19,6 +19,10 @@ 
 #include "balloon.h"
 #include "virtio-balloon.h"
 #include "kvm.h"
+#include "monitor.h"
+#include "qlist.h"
+#include "qint.h"
+#include "qstring.h"
 
 #if defined(__linux__)
 #include <sys/mman.h>
@@ -27,9 +31,16 @@ 
 typedef struct VirtIOBalloon
 {
     VirtIODevice vdev;
-    VirtQueue *ivq, *dvq;
+    VirtQueue *ivq, *dvq, *svq;
     uint32_t num_pages;
     uint32_t actual;
+    uint64_t stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_NR];
+    VirtQueueElement stats_vq_elem;
+    size_t stats_vq_offset;
+    QEMUTimer *stats_timer;
+    uint64_t stats_updated;
+    Monitor *stats_mon;
+    bool stats_requested;
 } VirtIOBalloon;
 
 static VirtIOBalloon *to_virtio_balloon(VirtIODevice *vdev)
@@ -46,6 +57,50 @@  static void balloon_page(void *addr, int deflate)
 #endif
 }
 
+/*
+ * reset_stats - Mark all items in the stats array as unset
+ *
+ * This function needs to be called at device intialization and before
+ * before updating to a set of newly-generated stats.  This will ensure that no
+ * stale values stick around in case the guest reports a subset of the supported
+ * statistics.
+ */
+static inline void reset_stats(VirtIOBalloon *dev)
+{
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0; i < VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_NR; dev->stats[i++] = -1);
+    dev->stats_updated = qemu_get_clock(host_clock);
+}
+
+static void stat_put(QDict *dict, const char *label, uint64_t val)
+{
+    if (val != -1)
+        qdict_put(dict, label, qint_from_int(val));
+}
+
+static QObject *get_stats_qobject(VirtIOBalloon *dev)
+{
+    QDict *dict = qdict_new();
+    uint32_t actual = ram_size - (dev->actual << VIRTIO_BALLOON_PFN_SHIFT);
+    uint64_t age;
+
+    stat_put(dict, "actual", actual);
+    stat_put(dict, "mem_swapped_in", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_IN]);
+    stat_put(dict, "mem_swapped_out", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_OUT]);
+    stat_put(dict, "major_page_faults", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MAJFLT]);
+    stat_put(dict, "minor_page_faults", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MINFLT]);
+    stat_put(dict, "free_mem", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMFREE]);
+    stat_put(dict, "total_mem", dev->stats[VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMTOT]);
+
+    /* If age is over the timeout threshold, report it */
+    age = (qemu_get_clock(host_clock) - dev->stats_updated) /
+          (get_ticks_per_sec() / 1000);
+    if (age >= QEMU_BALLOON_SYNC_TIMEOUT * 1000)
+        stat_put(dict, "age", age);
+
+    return QOBJECT(dict);
+}
+
 /* FIXME: once we do a virtio refactoring, this will get subsumed into common
  * code */
 static size_t memcpy_from_iovector(void *data, size_t offset, size_t size,
@@ -104,6 +159,73 @@  static void virtio_balloon_handle_output(VirtIODevice *vdev, VirtQueue *vq)
     }
 }
 
+/*
+ * complete_stats_request - Clean up and report statistics.
+ */
+static void complete_stats_request(VirtIOBalloon *vb)
+{
+    QObject *stats;
+
+    /* Only respond to incoming stats if we requested them */
+    if (!vb->stats_requested) {
+        return;
+    }
+
+    stats = get_stats_qobject(vb);
+    if (!monitor_ctrl_mode(vb->stats_mon)) {
+        qemu_del_timer(vb->stats_timer);
+        monitor_print_balloon(vb->stats_mon, stats);
+        monitor_resume(vb->stats_mon);
+    } else {
+        monitor_protocol_event(QEVENT_BALLOON, stats);
+    }
+
+    vb->stats_mon = NULL;
+    vb->stats_requested = false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * stats_request_timeout - Timer callback for sychronous request timeout
+ *
+ * In the case of a synchronous timeout, just report the old statistics.
+ */
+static void stats_request_timeout(void *opaque)
+{
+    VirtIOBalloon *vb = (VirtIOBalloon *)opaque;
+    complete_stats_request(vb);
+}
+
+static void virtio_balloon_receive_stats(VirtIODevice *vdev, VirtQueue *vq)
+{
+    VirtIOBalloon *s = DO_UPCAST(VirtIOBalloon, vdev, vdev);
+    VirtQueueElement *elem = &s->stats_vq_elem;
+    VirtIOBalloonStat stat;
+    size_t offset = 0;
+
+    if (!virtqueue_pop(vq, elem)) {
+        return;
+    }
+
+    /* Initialize the stats to get rid of any stale values.  This is only
+     * needed to handle the case where a guest supports fewer stats than it
+     * used to (ie. it has booted into an old kernel).
+     */
+    reset_stats(s);
+
+    while (memcpy_from_iovector(&stat, offset, sizeof(stat), elem->out_sg,
+                                elem->out_num) == sizeof(stat)) {
+        uint16_t tag = tswap16(stat.tag);
+        uint64_t val = tswap64(stat.val);
+
+        offset += sizeof(stat);
+        if (tag < VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_NR)
+            s->stats[tag] = val;
+    }
+    s->stats_vq_offset = offset;
+
+    complete_stats_request(s);
+}
+
 static void virtio_balloon_get_config(VirtIODevice *vdev, uint8_t *config_data)
 {
     VirtIOBalloon *dev = to_virtio_balloon(vdev);
@@ -126,10 +248,56 @@  static void virtio_balloon_set_config(VirtIODevice *vdev,
 
 static uint32_t virtio_balloon_get_features(VirtIODevice *vdev, uint32_t f)
 {
+    f |= (1 << VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_STATS_VQ);
     return f;
 }
 
-static ram_addr_t virtio_balloon_to_target(void *opaque, ram_addr_t target)
+/*
+ * request_stats - Initiate a request for memory statistics
+ *
+ * If stats are not supported, just report 'actual', otherwise, two types of
+ * requests are supported:
+ *
+ * Synchronous requests are intended to be used with the user monitor.  The
+ * monitor is suspended until the stats are received or the timer expires.
+ * Either the newly-update stats or the current stats (in the case of a timeout)
+ * are printed to the monitor and the monitor is resumed.
+ *
+ * Asynchronous requests are intended for QMP.  A QMP event will be generated
+ * only if the stats are updated.
+ */
+static void request_stats(VirtIOBalloon *vb, Monitor *mon)
+{
+    /* If a user-monitor is already waiting, resume that one first */
+    if (vb->stats_requested && !monitor_ctrl_mode(vb->stats_mon)) {
+            qemu_del_timer(vb->stats_timer);
+            monitor_resume(vb->stats_mon);
+    }
+    vb->stats_requested = true;
+    vb->stats_mon = mon;
+
+    /* Set up a synchronous request for a user-monitor. */
+    if (!monitor_ctrl_mode(mon)) {
+        uint64_t later = qemu_get_clock(vm_clock) +
+                             QEMU_BALLOON_SYNC_TIMEOUT * get_ticks_per_sec();
+        monitor_suspend(mon);
+        qemu_mod_timer(vb->stats_timer, later);
+    }
+
+    if (vb->vdev.guest_features & (1 << VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_STATS_VQ)) {
+        virtqueue_push(vb->svq, &vb->stats_vq_elem, vb->stats_vq_offset);
+        virtio_notify(&vb->vdev, vb->svq);
+    } else {
+        /* Stats are not supported.  Clear out any stale values that might have
+         * been set by a more featureful guest kernel.
+         */
+        reset_stats(vb);
+        complete_stats_request(vb);
+    }
+}
+
+static void virtio_balloon_to_target(void *opaque, ram_addr_t target,
+                                     Monitor *mon)
 {
     VirtIOBalloon *dev = opaque;
 
@@ -139,9 +307,9 @@  static ram_addr_t virtio_balloon_to_target(void *opaque, ram_addr_t target)
     if (target) {
         dev->num_pages = (ram_size - target) >> VIRTIO_BALLOON_PFN_SHIFT;
         virtio_notify_config(&dev->vdev);
+    } else {
+        request_stats(dev, mon);
     }
-
-    return ram_size - (dev->actual << VIRTIO_BALLOON_PFN_SHIFT);
 }
 
 static void virtio_balloon_save(QEMUFile *f, void *opaque)
@@ -152,6 +320,11 @@  static void virtio_balloon_save(QEMUFile *f, void *opaque)
 
     qemu_put_be32(f, s->num_pages);
     qemu_put_be32(f, s->actual);
+    qemu_put_buffer(f, (uint8_t *)&s->stats_vq_elem, sizeof(VirtQueueElement));
+    qemu_put_buffer(f, (uint8_t *)&s->stats_vq_offset, sizeof(size_t));
+    qemu_put_timer(f, s->stats_timer);
+    qemu_put_be32(f, s->stats_updated);
+/* XXX save monitor and stats_requested */
 }
 
 static int virtio_balloon_load(QEMUFile *f, void *opaque, int version_id)
@@ -165,6 +338,11 @@  static int virtio_balloon_load(QEMUFile *f, void *opaque, int version_id)
 
     s->num_pages = qemu_get_be32(f);
     s->actual = qemu_get_be32(f);
+    qemu_get_buffer(f, (uint8_t *)&s->stats_vq_elem, sizeof(VirtQueueElement));
+    qemu_get_buffer(f, (uint8_t *)&s->stats_vq_offset, sizeof(size_t));
+    qemu_get_timer(f, s->stats_timer);
+    s->stats_updated = qemu_get_be32(f);
+/* XXX Load monitor and stats_requested */
 
     return 0;
 }
@@ -183,7 +361,10 @@  VirtIODevice *virtio_balloon_init(DeviceState *dev)
 
     s->ivq = virtio_add_queue(&s->vdev, 128, virtio_balloon_handle_output);
     s->dvq = virtio_add_queue(&s->vdev, 128, virtio_balloon_handle_output);
+    s->svq = virtio_add_queue(&s->vdev, 128, virtio_balloon_receive_stats);
 
+    s->stats_timer = qemu_new_timer(vm_clock, stats_request_timeout, s);
+    reset_stats(s);
     qemu_add_balloon_handler(virtio_balloon_to_target, s);
 
     register_savevm("virtio-balloon", -1, 1, virtio_balloon_save, virtio_balloon_load, s);
diff --git a/hw/virtio-balloon.h b/hw/virtio-balloon.h
index 9a0d119..e20cf6b 100644
--- a/hw/virtio-balloon.h
+++ b/hw/virtio-balloon.h
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@ 
 
 /* The feature bitmap for virtio balloon */
 #define VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_MUST_TELL_HOST 0 /* Tell before reclaiming pages */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_STATS_VQ 1       /* Memory stats virtqueue */
 
 /* Size of a PFN in the balloon interface. */
 #define VIRTIO_BALLOON_PFN_SHIFT 12
@@ -37,4 +38,18 @@  struct virtio_balloon_config
     uint32_t actual;
 };
 
+/* Memory Statistics */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_IN  0   /* Amount of memory swapped in */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_OUT 1   /* Amount of memory swapped out */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MAJFLT   2   /* Number of major faults */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MINFLT   3   /* Number of minor faults */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMFREE  4   /* Total amount of free memory */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMTOT   5   /* Total amount of memory */
+#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_NR       6
+
+typedef struct VirtIOBalloonStat {
+    uint16_t tag;
+    uint64_t val;
+} __attribute__((packed)) VirtIOBalloonStat;
+
 #endif
diff --git a/monitor.c b/monitor.c
index b824e7c..134ed15 100644
--- a/monitor.c
+++ b/monitor.c
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@  static void monitor_command_cb(Monitor *mon, const char *cmdline,
                                void *opaque);
 
 /* Return true if in control mode, false otherwise */
-static inline int monitor_ctrl_mode(const Monitor *mon)
+int monitor_ctrl_mode(const Monitor *mon)
 {
     return (mon->flags & MONITOR_USE_CONTROL);
 }
@@ -357,6 +357,9 @@  void monitor_protocol_event(MonitorEvent event, QObject *data)
         case QEVENT_STOP:
             event_name = "STOP";
             break;
+        case QEVENT_BALLOON:
+            event_name = "BALLOON";
+            break;
         default:
             abort();
             break;
@@ -2058,43 +2061,27 @@  static void do_info_status(Monitor *mon, QObject **ret_data)
                                     vm_running, singlestep);
 }
 
-static ram_addr_t balloon_get_value(void)
+static void print_balloon_stat(const char *key, QObject *obj, void *opaque)
 {
-    ram_addr_t actual;
-
-    if (kvm_enabled() && !kvm_has_sync_mmu()) {
-        qemu_error_new(QERR_KVM_MISSING_CAP, "synchronous MMU", "balloon");
-        return 0;
-    }
-
-    actual = qemu_balloon_status();
-    if (actual == 0) {
-        qemu_error_new(QERR_DEVICE_NOT_ACTIVE, "balloon");
-        return 0;
-    }
-
-    return actual;
-}
+    Monitor *mon = opaque;
 
-/**
- * do_balloon(): Request VM to change its memory allocation
- */
-static void do_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QDict *qdict, QObject **ret_data)
-{
-    if (balloon_get_value()) {
-        /* ballooning is active */
-        qemu_balloon(qdict_get_int(qdict, "value"));
-    }
+    if (strcmp(key, "actual"))
+        monitor_printf(mon, ",%s=%" PRId64, key,
+                            qint_get_int(qobject_to_qint(obj)));
 }
 
-static void monitor_print_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QObject *data)
+void monitor_print_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QObject *data)
 {
     QDict *qdict;
 
     qdict = qobject_to_qdict(data);
+    if (!qdict_haskey(qdict, "actual"))
+        return;
 
-    monitor_printf(mon, "balloon: actual=%" PRId64 "\n",
-                        qdict_get_int(qdict, "balloon") >> 20);
+    monitor_printf(mon, "balloon: actual=%" PRId64,
+                        qdict_get_int(qdict, "actual") >> 20);
+    qdict_iter(qdict, print_balloon_stat, mon);
+    monitor_printf(mon, "\n");
 }
 
 /**
@@ -2102,21 +2089,52 @@  static void monitor_print_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QObject *data)
  *
  * Return a QDict with the following information:
  *
- * - "balloon": current balloon value in bytes
+ * - "actual": current balloon value in bytes
+ * The following fields may or may not be present:
+ * - "mem_swapped_in": Amount of memory swapped in (bytes)
+ * - "mem_swapped_out": Amount of memory swapped out (bytes)
+ * - "major_page_faults": Number of major faults
+ * - "minor_page_faults": Number of minor faults
+ * - "free_mem": Total amount of free and unused memory (bytes)
+ * - "total_mem": Total amount of available memory (bytes)
  *
  * Example:
  *
- * { "balloon": 1073741824 }
+ * { "actual": 1073741824, "mem_swapped_in": 0, "mem_swapped_out": 0,
+ *   "major_page_faults": 142, "minor_page_faults": 239245,
+ *   "free_mem": 1014185984, "total_mem": 1044668416 }
  */
 static void do_info_balloon(Monitor *mon, QObject **ret_data)
 {
-    ram_addr_t actual;
+    int ret;
+
+    if (kvm_enabled() && !kvm_has_sync_mmu()) {
+        qemu_error_new(QERR_KVM_MISSING_CAP, "synchronous MMU", "balloon");
+        return;
+    }
+
+    ret = qemu_balloon_status(mon);
+    if (!ret) {
+        qemu_error_new(QERR_DEVICE_NOT_ACTIVE, "balloon");
+        return;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * do_balloon(): Request VM to change its memory allocation
+ */
+static void do_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QDict *qdict, QObject **ret_data)
+{
+    int ret;
 
-    actual = balloon_get_value();
-    if (actual != 0) {
-        *ret_data = qobject_from_jsonf("{ 'balloon': %" PRId64 "}",
-                                       (int64_t) actual);
+    if (kvm_enabled() && !kvm_has_sync_mmu()) {
+        qemu_error_new(QERR_KVM_MISSING_CAP, "synchronous MMU", "balloon");
+        return;
     }
+
+    ret = qemu_balloon(qdict_get_int(qdict, "value"));
+    if (ret == 0)
+        qemu_error_new(QERR_DEVICE_NOT_ACTIVE, "balloon");
 }
 
 static qemu_acl *find_acl(Monitor *mon, const char *name)
diff --git a/monitor.h b/monitor.h
index 6ed117a..556239a 100644
--- a/monitor.h
+++ b/monitor.h
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@  typedef enum MonitorEvent {
     QEVENT_RESET,
     QEVENT_POWERDOWN,
     QEVENT_STOP,
+    QEVENT_BALLOON,
     QEVENT_MAX,
 } MonitorEvent;
 
@@ -32,6 +33,7 @@  void monitor_resume(Monitor *mon);
 void monitor_read_bdrv_key_start(Monitor *mon, BlockDriverState *bs,
                                  BlockDriverCompletionFunc *completion_cb,
                                  void *opaque);
+void monitor_print_balloon(Monitor *mon, const QObject *data);
 
 int monitor_get_fd(Monitor *mon, const char *fdname);
 
@@ -41,4 +43,6 @@  void monitor_printf(Monitor *mon, const char *fmt, ...)
 void monitor_print_filename(Monitor *mon, const char *filename);
 void monitor_flush(Monitor *mon);
 
+extern int monitor_ctrl_mode(const Monitor *mon);
+
 #endif /* !MONITOR_H */
diff --git a/vl.c b/vl.c
index b048e89..e4bf434 100644
--- a/vl.c
+++ b/vl.c
@@ -362,17 +362,24 @@  void qemu_add_balloon_handler(QEMUBalloonEvent *func, void *opaque)
     qemu_balloon_event_opaque = opaque;
 }
 
-void qemu_balloon(ram_addr_t target)
+int qemu_balloon(ram_addr_t target)
 {
-    if (qemu_balloon_event)
-        qemu_balloon_event(qemu_balloon_event_opaque, target);
+    if (qemu_balloon_event) {
+        qemu_balloon_event(qemu_balloon_event_opaque, target, NULL);
+        return 1;
+    } else {
+        return 0;
+    }
 }
 
-ram_addr_t qemu_balloon_status(void)
+int qemu_balloon_status(Monitor *mon)
 {
-    if (qemu_balloon_event)
-        return qemu_balloon_event(qemu_balloon_event_opaque, 0);
-    return 0;
+    if (qemu_balloon_event) {
+        qemu_balloon_event(qemu_balloon_event_opaque, 0, mon);
+        return 1;
+    } else {
+        return 0;
+    }
 }
 
 /***********************************************************/