Patchwork [v3,19/25] pc98vga: add NEC PC-9821 family vga

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Submitter 武田 =?ISO-2022-JP?B?IBskQj1TTGkbKEI=?=
Date Oct. 28, 2009, 4:53 p.m.
Message ID <200910281653.AA00182@YOUR-BD18D6DD63.m1.interq.or.jp>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/37159/
State New
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Patch

diff --git a/qemu/hw/pc98vga.c b/qemu/hw/pc98vga.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4d72836
--- /dev/null
+++ b/qemu/hw/pc98vga.c
@@ -0,0 +1,5236 @@ 
+/*
+ * QEMU NEC PC-9821 VGA
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2009 TAKEDA, toshiya
+ *
+ * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
+ * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
+ * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
+ * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
+ * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
+ * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
+ *
+ * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
+ * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+ *
+ * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
+ * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
+ * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
+ * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
+ * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
+ * THE SOFTWARE.
+ */
+
+/* TODO: TARGET_WORDS_BIGENDIAN */
+
+#include "hw.h"
+#include "pc.h"
+#include "isa.h"
+#include "sysemu.h"
+#include "console.h"
+#include "pixel_ops.h"
+#include "qemu-timer.h"
+#include "loader.h"
+
+#define TVRAM_SIZE      0x4000
+#define VRAM16_SIZE     0x40000
+#define VRAM256_SIZE    0x80000
+#define EMS_SIZE        0x10000
+#define SMRAM_SIZE      0x20000
+
+#define GDC_BUFFERS     1024
+#define GDC_TABLEMAX    0x1000
+
+struct gdc_t;
+typedef struct gdc_t gdc_t;
+
+struct egc_t;
+typedef struct egc_t egc_t;
+
+struct vga_t;
+typedef struct vga_t vga_t;
+
+struct gdc_t {
+    void *vga;
+
+    /* vram access */
+    IOPortReadFunc *vram_read;
+    IOPortWriteFunc *vram_write;
+
+    /* address */
+    uint32_t address[480][80];
+
+    /* registers */
+    int cmdreg;
+    uint8_t statreg;
+
+    /* params */
+    uint8_t sync[16];
+    uint8_t zoom, zr, zw;
+    uint8_t ra[16];
+    uint8_t cs[3];
+    uint8_t pitch;
+    uint32_t lad;
+    uint8_t vect[11];
+    uint32_t ead, dad;
+    uint8_t maskl, maskh;
+    uint8_t mod;
+    uint8_t start;
+    uint8_t dirty;
+
+    /* fifo buffers */
+    uint8_t params[16];
+    int params_count;
+    uint8_t data[GDC_BUFFERS];
+    int data_count, data_read, data_write;
+
+    /* draw */
+    int rt[GDC_TABLEMAX + 1];
+    int dx, dy;
+    int dir, diff, sl, dc, d, d2, d1, dm;
+    uint16_t pattern;
+};
+
+typedef union {
+    uint8_t b[2];
+    uint16_t w;
+} egcword_t;
+
+typedef union {
+    uint8_t b[4][2];
+    uint16_t w[4];
+    uint32_t d[2];
+    uint64_t q;
+} egcquad_t;
+
+struct egc_t {
+    void *vga;
+
+    uint16_t access;
+    uint16_t fgbg;
+    uint16_t ope;
+    uint16_t fg;
+    egcword_t mask;
+    uint16_t bg;
+    uint16_t sft;
+    uint16_t leng;
+    egcquad_t lastvram;
+    egcquad_t patreg;
+    egcquad_t fgc;
+    egcquad_t bgc;
+    int func;
+    uint32_t remain;
+    uint32_t stack;
+    uint8_t *inptr;
+    int inptr_vmstate;
+    uint8_t *outptr;
+    int outptr_vmstate;
+    egcword_t mask2;
+    egcword_t srcmask;
+    uint8_t srcbit;
+    uint8_t dstbit;
+    uint8_t sft8bitl;
+    uint8_t sft8bitr;
+    uint32_t padding_b[4];
+    uint32_t padding_a[4];
+    uint8_t buf[528];	/* 4096/8 + 4*4 */
+
+    /* vram */
+    uint8_t *vram_ptr;
+    uint8_t *vram_b;
+    uint8_t *vram_r;
+    uint8_t *vram_g;
+    uint8_t *vram_e;
+    egcquad_t vram_src;
+    egcquad_t vram_data;
+};
+
+struct vga_t {
+    DisplayState *ds;
+    uint8_t tvram_buffer[480 * 640];
+    uint8_t vram0_buffer[480 * 640];
+    uint8_t vram1_buffer[480 * 640];
+    uint8_t null_buffer[480 * 640];
+    int width;
+    int height;
+    int last_width;
+    int last_height;
+    uint8_t dirty;
+    uint8_t blink;
+    uint32_t palette_chr[8];
+    uint32_t palette_gfx[256];
+
+    uint8_t font[0x84000];
+    uint8_t tvram[TVRAM_SIZE];
+    uint8_t vram16[VRAM16_SIZE];
+    uint8_t vram256[VRAM256_SIZE];
+    uint8_t ems[EMS_SIZE];
+    uint8_t *vram16_disp_b;
+    uint8_t *vram16_disp_r;
+    uint8_t *vram16_disp_g;
+    uint8_t *vram16_disp_e;
+    uint8_t *vram16_draw_b;
+    uint8_t *vram16_draw_r;
+    uint8_t *vram16_draw_g;
+    uint8_t *vram16_draw_e;
+    uint8_t *vram256_disp;
+    uint8_t *vram256_draw_0;
+    uint8_t *vram256_draw_1;
+
+    struct gdc_t gdc_chr;
+    struct gdc_t gdc_gfx;
+    struct egc_t egc;
+
+    uint8_t grcg_mode;
+    uint8_t grcg_tile_cnt;
+    uint8_t grcg_tile_b[4];
+    uint16_t grcg_tile_w[4];
+
+    uint8_t crtv;
+    uint8_t pl;
+    uint8_t bl;
+    uint8_t cl;
+    uint8_t ssl;
+    uint8_t sur;
+    uint8_t sdr;
+
+    uint8_t mode1[8];
+    uint8_t mode2[128];
+    uint8_t mode3[128];
+    uint8_t mode_select;
+
+    uint8_t digipal[4];
+    uint8_t anapal[3][256];
+    uint8_t anapal_select;
+
+    uint8_t bank_draw;
+    uint8_t bank_disp;
+    uint8_t bank256_draw_0;
+    uint8_t bank256_draw_1;
+    uint16_t vram256_bank_0;
+    uint16_t vram256_bank_1;
+    uint8_t ems_selected;
+
+    uint8_t swdip[24];
+    uint8_t swdip_bank;
+
+    uint8_t gaiji[512 * 64];
+    uint8_t font_code1;
+    uint8_t font_code2;
+    uint8_t font_line;
+
+    void* cirrus_vga;
+    uint8_t cirrus_regnum;
+    uint8_t cirrus_reg[256];
+    uint8_t prev_vga;
+
+    QEMUTimer *vsync_timer;
+    qemu_irq irq;
+    int64_t vsync_clock;
+};
+
+enum {
+    MODE1_ATRSEL        = 0x00,
+    MODE1_GRAPHIC       = 0x01,
+    MODE1_COLUMN        = 0x02,
+    MODE1_FONTSEL       = 0x03,
+    MODE1_200LINE       = 0x04,
+    MODE1_KAC           = 0x05,
+    MODE1_MEMSW         = 0x06,
+    MODE1_DISP          = 0x07,
+};
+
+enum {
+    MODE2_16COLOR       = 0x00,
+    MODE2_EGC           = 0x02,
+    MODE2_WRITE_MASK    = 0x03,
+    MODE2_256COLOR      = 0x10,
+    MODE2_480LINE       = 0x34,
+    MODE2_CIRRUS        = 0x47,
+};
+
+enum {
+    MODE3_WRITE_MASK    = 0x01,
+    MODE3_LINE_COLOR    = 0x09,
+    MODE3_NPC_COLOR     = 0x0b,
+    MODE3_LINE_CONNECT  = 0x0f,
+};
+
+enum {
+    GRCG_PLANE_0        = 0x01,
+    GRCG_PLANE_1        = 0x02,
+    GRCG_PLANE_2        = 0x04,
+    GRCG_PLANE_3        = 0x08,
+    GRCG_PLANE_SEL      = 0x30,
+    GRCG_RW_MODE        = 0x40,
+    GRCG_CG_MODE        = 0x80,
+};
+
+/***********************************************************/
+/* NEC uPD7220 GDC */
+
+/*
+ * PC-9821 CRT sync timing (24.83KHz/400L monitor)
+ *
+ * VCLOCK = 56.43;
+ * VLINES = 440;
+*/
+
+#define GDC_VTICKS   18
+#define GDC_VSTICKS  2
+
+enum {
+    GDC_CMD_RESET    = 0x00,
+    GDC_CMD_SYNC     = 0x0e,
+    GDC_CMD_SLAVE    = 0x6e,
+    GDC_CMD_MASTER   = 0x6f,
+    GDC_CMD_START    = 0x6b,
+    GDC_CMD_BCTRL    = 0x0c,
+    GDC_CMD_ZOOM     = 0x46,
+    GDC_CMD_SCROLL   = 0x70,
+    GDC_CMD_CSRFORM  = 0x4b,
+    GDC_CMD_PITCH    = 0x47,
+    GDC_CMD_LPEN     = 0xc0,
+    GDC_CMD_VECTW    = 0x4c,
+    GDC_CMD_VECTE    = 0x6c,
+    GDC_CMD_TEXTW    = 0x78,
+    GDC_CMD_TEXTE    = 0x68,
+    GDC_CMD_CSRW     = 0x49,
+    GDC_CMD_CSRR     = 0xe0,
+    GDC_CMD_MASK     = 0x4a,
+    GDC_CMD_WRITE    = 0x20,
+    GDC_CMD_READ     = 0xa0,
+    GDC_CMD_DMAR     = 0xa4,
+    GDC_CMD_DMAW     = 0x24,
+    /* unknown command (3 params) */
+    GDC_CMD_UNK_5A   = 0x5a,
+};
+
+enum {
+    GDC_STAT_DRDY    = 0x01,
+    GDC_STAT_FULL    = 0x02,
+    GDC_STAT_EMPTY   = 0x04,
+    GDC_STAT_DRAW    = 0x08,
+    GDC_STAT_DMA     = 0x10,
+    GDC_STAT_VSYNC   = 0x20,
+    GDC_STAT_HBLANK  = 0x40,
+    GDC_STAT_LPEN    = 0x80,
+};
+
+enum {
+    GDC_DIRTY_VRAM   = 0x01,
+    GDC_DIRTY_START  = 0x02,
+    GDC_DIRTY_SCROLL = 0x04,
+    GDC_DIRTY_CURSOR = 0x08,
+    GDC_DIRTY_GFX    = GDC_DIRTY_VRAM | GDC_DIRTY_SCROLL,
+    GDC_DIRTY_CHR    = GDC_DIRTY_GFX | GDC_DIRTY_CURSOR,
+};
+
+#define GDC_MULBIT   15
+#define GDC_TABLEBIT 12
+
+/* draw command */
+
+static const int gdc_vectdir[16][4] = {
+    { 0, 1, 1, 0}, { 1, 1, 1,-1}, { 1, 0, 0,-1}, { 1,-1,-1,-1},
+    { 0,-1,-1, 0}, {-1,-1,-1, 1}, {-1, 0, 0, 1}, {-1, 1, 1, 1},
+    { 0, 1, 1, 1}, { 1, 1, 1, 0}, { 1, 0, 1,-1}, { 1,-1, 0,-1},
+    { 0,-1,-1,-1}, {-1,-1,-1, 0}, {-1, 0,-1, 1}, {-1, 1, 0, 1}
+};
+
+static void gdc_draw_pset(void *opaque, int x, int y)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+    uint16_t dot = s->pattern & 1;
+    uint32_t addr = y * 80 + (x >> 3) + 0x8000;
+    uint8_t bit = 0x80 >> (x & 7);
+    uint8_t cur = s->vram_read(v, addr);
+
+    s->pattern = (s->pattern >> 1) | (dot << 15);
+
+    switch (s->mod) {
+    case 0: /* replace */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, (cur & ~bit) | (dot ? bit : 0));
+        break;
+    case 1: /* complement */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, (cur & ~bit) | ((cur ^ (dot ? 0xff : 0)) & bit));
+        break;
+    case 2: /* reset */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, cur & (dot ? ~bit : 0xff));
+        break;
+    case 3: /* set */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, cur | (dot ? bit : 0));
+        break;
+    }
+    s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_VRAM;
+}
+
+static void gdc_draw_vectl(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->pattern = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+    if (s->dc) {
+        int x = s->dx, y = s->dy;
+        int i;
+
+        switch (s->dir) {
+        case 0:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x + step, y++);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 1:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x++, y + step);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 2:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x++, y - step);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 3:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x + step, y--);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 4:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x - step, y--);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 5:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x--, y - step);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 6:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x--, y + step);
+            }
+            break;
+        case 7:
+            for (i = 0; i <= s->dc; i++) {
+                int step = (int)((((s->d1 * i) / s->dc) + 1) >> 1);
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, x - step, y++);
+            }
+            break;
+        }
+    } else {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_draw_vectt(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int vx1 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][0];
+    int vy1 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][1];
+    int vx2 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][2];
+    int vy2 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][3];
+    int muly = s->zw + 1;
+    uint16_t draw = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+
+    if (s->sl) {
+        draw = (draw & 0x0001 ? 0x8000 : 0) | (draw & 0x0002 ? 0x4000 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x0004 ? 0x2000 : 0) | (draw & 0x0008 ? 0x1000 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x0010 ? 0x0800 : 0) | (draw & 0x0020 ? 0x0400 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x0040 ? 0x0200 : 0) | (draw & 0x0080 ? 0x0100 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x0100 ? 0x0080 : 0) | (draw & 0x0200 ? 0x0040 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x0400 ? 0x0020 : 0) | (draw & 0x0800 ? 0x0010 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x1000 ? 0x0008 : 0) | (draw & 0x2000 ? 0x0004 : 0) | 
+               (draw & 0x8000 ? 0x0002 : 0) | (draw & 0x8000 ? 0x0001 : 0);
+    }
+    s->pattern = 0xffff;
+    while(muly--) {
+        int cx = s->dx;
+        int cy = s->dy;
+        int xrem = s->d;
+        while(xrem--) {
+            int mulx = s->zw + 1;
+            if (draw & 1) {
+                draw >>= 1;
+                draw |= 0x8000;
+                while(mulx--) {
+                    gdc_draw_pset(s, cx, cy);
+                    cx += vx1;
+                    cy += vy1;
+                }
+            } else {
+                draw >>= 1;
+                while(mulx--) {
+                    cx += vx1;
+                    cy += vy1;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        s->dx += vx2;
+        s->dy += vy2;
+    }
+    s->ead = (s->dx >> 4) + s->dy * s->pitch;
+    s->dad = s->dx & 0x0f;
+}
+
+static void gdc_draw_vectc(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int m = (s->d * 10000 + 14141) / 14142;
+    int t = (s->dc > m) ? m : s->dc;
+    int i;
+
+    s->pattern = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+    if (m) {
+        switch (s->dir) {
+        case 0:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx + c), (s->dy + i));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 1:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx + i), (s->dy + c));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 2:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx + i), (s->dy - c));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 3:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx + c), (s->dy - i));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 4:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx - c), (s->dy - i));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 5:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx - i), (s->dy - c));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 6:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx - i), (s->dy + c));
+            }
+            break;
+        case 7:
+            for (i = s->dm; i <= t; i++) {
+                int c = (s->rt[(i << GDC_TABLEBIT) / m] * s->d);
+                c = (c + (1 << (GDC_MULBIT - 1))) >> GDC_MULBIT;
+                gdc_draw_pset(s, (s->dx - c), (s->dy + i));
+            }
+            break;
+        }
+    } else {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_draw_vectr(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int vx1 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][0];
+    int vy1 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][1];
+    int vx2 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][2];
+    int vy2 = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][3];
+    int i;
+
+    s->pattern = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+    for (i = 0; i < s->d; i++) {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+        s->dx += vx1;
+        s->dy += vy1;
+    }
+    for (i = 0; i < s->d2; i++) {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+        s->dx += vx2;
+        s->dy += vy2;
+    }
+    for (i = 0; i < s->d; i++) {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+        s->dx -= vx1;
+        s->dy -= vy1;
+    }
+    for (i = 0; i < s->d2; i++) {
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+        s->dx -= vx2;
+        s->dy -= vy2;
+    }
+    s->ead = (s->dx >> 4) + s->dy * s->pitch;
+    s->dad = s->dx & 0x0f;
+}
+
+static void gdc_draw_text(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int dir = s->dir + (s->sl ? 8 : 0);
+    int vx1 = gdc_vectdir[dir][0];
+    int vy1 = gdc_vectdir[dir][1];
+    int vx2 = gdc_vectdir[dir][2];
+    int vy2 = gdc_vectdir[dir][3];
+    int sx = s->d;
+    int sy = s->dc + 1;
+    int index = 15;
+
+    while(sy--) {
+        int muly = s->zw + 1;
+        while(muly--) {
+            int cx = s->dx;
+            int cy = s->dy;
+            uint8_t bit = s->ra[index];
+            int xrem = sx;
+            while(xrem--) {
+                s->pattern = (bit & 1) ? 0xffff : 0;
+                bit = (bit >> 1) | ((bit & 1) ? 0x80 : 0);
+                int mulx = s->zw + 1;
+                while(mulx--) {
+                    gdc_draw_pset(s, cx, cy);
+                    cx += vx1;
+                    cy += vy1;
+                }
+            }
+            s->dx += vx2;
+            s->dy += vy2;
+        }
+        index = ((index - 1) & 7) | 8;
+    }
+    s->ead = (s->dx >> 4) + s->dy * s->pitch;
+    s->dad = s->dx & 0x0f;
+}
+
+/* command sub */
+
+static void gdc_update_vect(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->dir = s->vect[0] & 7;
+    s->diff = gdc_vectdir[s->dir][0] + gdc_vectdir[s->dir][1] * s->pitch;
+    s->sl = s->vect[0] & 0x80;
+    s->dc = (s->vect[1] | (s->vect[ 2] << 8)) & 0x3fff;
+    s->d  = (s->vect[3] | (s->vect[ 4] << 8)) & 0x3fff;
+    s->d2 = (s->vect[5] | (s->vect[ 6] << 8)) & 0x3fff;
+    s->d1 = (s->vect[7] | (s->vect[ 8] << 8)) & 0x3fff;
+    s->dm = (s->vect[9] | (s->vect[10] << 8)) & 0x3fff;
+}
+
+static void gdc_reset_vect(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->vect[ 1] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 2] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 3] = 8;
+    s->vect[ 4] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 5] = 8;
+    s->vect[ 6] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 7] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 8] = 0;
+    s->vect[ 9] = 0;
+    s->vect[10] = 0;
+    gdc_update_vect(s);
+}
+
+static void gdc_write_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint8_t value)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    switch (s->mod) {
+    case 0: /* replace */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, value);
+        break;
+    case 1: /* complement */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, s->vram_read(v, addr) ^ value);
+        break;
+    case 2: /* reset */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, s->vram_read(v, addr) & ~value);
+        break;
+    case 3: /* set */
+        s->vram_write(v, addr, s->vram_read(v, addr) | value);
+        break;
+    }
+    s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_VRAM;
+}
+
+static uint8_t gdc_read_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    return s->vram_read(v, addr);
+}
+
+static void gdc_fifo_write(void *opaque, uint8_t value)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->data_count < GDC_BUFFERS) {
+        s->data[(s->data_write++) & (GDC_BUFFERS - 1)] = value;
+        s->data_count++;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint8_t gdc_fifo_read(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->data_count > 0) {
+        uint8_t value = s->data[(s->data_read++) & (GDC_BUFFERS - 1)];
+        s->data_count--;
+        return value;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* command */
+
+static void gdc_cmd_reset(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->sync[6] = 0x90;
+    s->sync[7] = 0x01;
+    s->zoom = s->zr = s->zw = 0;
+    s->ra[0] = s->ra[1] = s->ra[2] = 0;
+    s->ra[3] = 0x1e; /*0x19;*/
+    s->cs[0] = s->cs[1] = s->cs[2] = 0;
+    s->ead = s->dad = 0;
+    s->maskl = s->maskh = 0xff;
+    s->mod = 0;
+    s->start = 0;
+
+    s->params_count = 0;
+    s->data_count = s->data_read = s->data_write = 0;
+
+    s->statreg = 0;
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+    s->dirty = 0xff;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_sync(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 0; i < 8 && i < s->params_count; i++) {
+        s->sync[i] = s->params[i];
+    }
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_master(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_slave(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_start(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (!s->start) {
+        s->start = 1;
+        s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_START;
+    }
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_stop(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->start) {
+        s->start = 0;
+        s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_START;
+    }
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_zoom(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 0) {
+        uint8_t tmp = s->params[0];
+        s->zr = tmp >> 4;
+        s->zw = tmp & 0x0f;
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_scroll(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 0) {
+        if (s->ra[s->cmdreg & 0x0f] != s->params[0]) {
+            s->ra[s->cmdreg & 0x0f] = s->params[0];
+            s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_SCROLL;
+        }
+        if (s->cmdreg < 0x7f) {
+            s->cmdreg++;
+            s->params_count = 0;
+        } else {
+            s->cmdreg = -1;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_csrform(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 0; i < s->params_count; i++) {
+        if (s->cs[i] != s->params[i]) {
+            s->cs[i] = s->params[i];
+            s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_CURSOR;
+        }
+    }
+    if (s->params_count > 2) {
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_pitch(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 0) {
+        s->pitch = s->params[0];
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_lpen(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, s->lad & 0xff);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, (s->lad >> 8) & 0xff);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, (s->lad >> 16) & 0xff);
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_vectw(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 0; i < 11 && i < s->params_count; i++) {
+        s->vect[i] = s->params[i];
+    }
+    gdc_update_vect(s);
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_vecte(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->dx = ((s->ead % s->pitch) << 4) | (s->dad & 0x0f);
+    s->dy = s->ead / s->pitch;
+    if (!(s->vect[0] & 0x78)) {
+        s->pattern = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x08) {
+        gdc_draw_vectl(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x10) {
+        gdc_draw_vectt(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x20) {
+        gdc_draw_vectc(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x40) {
+        gdc_draw_vectr(s);
+    }
+    gdc_reset_vect(s);
+    s->statreg |= GDC_STAT_DRAW;
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_texte(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->dx = ((s->ead % s->pitch) << 4) | (s->dad & 0x0f);
+    s->dy = s->ead / s->pitch;
+    if (!(s->vect[0] & 0x78)) {
+        s->pattern = s->ra[8] | (s->ra[9] << 8);
+        gdc_draw_pset(s, s->dx, s->dy);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x08) {
+        gdc_draw_vectl(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x10) {
+        gdc_draw_text(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x20) {
+        gdc_draw_vectc(s);
+    }
+    if (s->vect[0] & 0x40) {
+        gdc_draw_vectr(s);
+    }
+    gdc_reset_vect(s);
+    s->statreg |= GDC_STAT_DRAW;
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_csrw(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 0) {
+        s->ead = s->params[0];
+        if (s->params_count > 1) {
+            s->ead |= s->params[1] << 8;
+            if (s->params_count > 2) {
+                s->ead |= s->params[2] << 16;
+                s->cmdreg = -1;
+            }
+        }
+        s->dad = (s->ead >> 20) & 0x0f;
+        s->ead &= 0x3ffff;
+        s->dirty |= GDC_DIRTY_CURSOR;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_csrr(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, s->ead & 0xff);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, (s->ead >> 8) & 0xff);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, (s->ead >> 16) & 0x03);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, s->dad & 0xff);
+    gdc_fifo_write(s, (s->dad >> 8) & 0xff);
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_mask(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 1) {
+        s->maskl = s->params[0];
+        s->maskh = s->params[1];
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_write(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t l, h;
+    int i;
+
+    s->mod = s->cmdreg & 3;
+    switch (s->cmdreg & 0x18) {
+    case 0x00: /* low and high */
+        if (s->params_count > 1) {
+            l = s->params[0] & s->maskl;
+            h = s->params[1] & s->maskh;
+            for (i = 0; i < s->dc + 1; i++) {
+                gdc_write_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 0, l);
+                gdc_write_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 1, h);
+                s->ead += s->diff;
+            }
+            gdc_reset_vect(s);
+            s->cmdreg = -1;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x10: /* low byte */
+        if (s->params_count > 0) {
+            l = s->params[0] & s->maskl;
+            for (i = 0; i < s->dc + 1; i++) {
+                gdc_write_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 0, l);
+                s->ead += s->diff;
+            }
+            gdc_reset_vect(s);
+            s->cmdreg = -1;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x18: /* high byte */
+        if (s->params_count > 0) {
+            h = s->params[0] & s->maskh;
+            for (i = 0; i < s->dc + 1; i++) {
+                gdc_write_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 1, h);
+                s->ead += s->diff;
+            }
+            gdc_reset_vect(s);
+            s->cmdreg = -1;
+        }
+        break;
+    default:    /* invalid */
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_read(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    s->mod = s->cmdreg & 3;
+    switch (s->cmdreg & 0x18) {
+    case 0x00: /* low and high */
+        for (i = 0; i < s->dc; i++) {
+            gdc_fifo_write(s, gdc_read_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 0));
+            gdc_fifo_write(s, gdc_read_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 1));
+            s->ead += s->diff;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x10: /* low byte */
+        for (i = 0; i < s->dc; i++) {
+            gdc_fifo_write(s, gdc_read_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 0));
+            s->ead += s->diff;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x18: /* high byte */
+        for (i = 0; i < s->dc; i++) {
+            gdc_fifo_write(s, gdc_read_sub(s, s->ead * 2 + 1));
+            s->ead += s->diff;
+        }
+        break;
+    default: /* invalid */
+        break;
+    }
+    gdc_reset_vect(s);
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_dmaw(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->mod = s->cmdreg & 3;
+    gdc_reset_vect(s);
+//    s->statreg |= GDC_STAT_DMA;
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_dmar(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->mod = s->cmdreg & 3;
+    gdc_reset_vect(s);
+//    s->statreg |= GDC_STAT_DMA;
+    s->cmdreg = -1;
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmd_unk_5a(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->params_count > 2) {
+        s->cmdreg = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_check_cmd(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    switch (s->cmdreg) {
+    case GDC_CMD_RESET:
+        gdc_cmd_reset(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_SYNC + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_SYNC + 1:
+        if (s->params_count > 7) {
+            gdc_cmd_sync(s);
+        }
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_MASTER:
+        gdc_cmd_master(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_SLAVE:
+        gdc_cmd_slave(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_START:
+        gdc_cmd_start(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_BCTRL + 0:
+        gdc_cmd_stop(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_BCTRL + 1:
+        gdc_cmd_start(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_ZOOM:
+        gdc_cmd_zoom(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 1:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 2:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 3:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 4:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 5:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 6:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 7:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 1:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 2:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 3:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 4:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 5:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 6:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 7:
+        gdc_cmd_scroll(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_CSRFORM:
+        gdc_cmd_csrform(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_PITCH:
+        gdc_cmd_pitch(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_LPEN:
+        gdc_cmd_lpen(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_VECTW:
+        if (s->params_count > 10) {
+            gdc_cmd_vectw(s);
+        }
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_VECTE:
+        gdc_cmd_vecte(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTE:
+        gdc_cmd_texte(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_CSRW:
+        gdc_cmd_csrw(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_CSRR:
+        gdc_cmd_csrr(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_MASK:
+        gdc_cmd_mask(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x00:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x01:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x02:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x03:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x08:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x09:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x0a:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x0b:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x10:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x11:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x12:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x13:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x18:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x19:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x1a:
+    case GDC_CMD_WRITE + 0x1b:
+        gdc_cmd_write(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x00:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x01:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x02:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x03:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x08:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x09:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x0a:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x0b:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x10:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x11:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x12:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x13:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x18:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x19:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x1a:
+    case GDC_CMD_READ + 0x1b:
+        gdc_cmd_read(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x00:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x01:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x02:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x03:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x08:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x09:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x0a:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x0b:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x10:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x11:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x12:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x13:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x18:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x19:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x1a:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAW + 0x1b:
+        gdc_cmd_dmaw(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x00:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x01:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x02:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x03:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x08:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x09:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x0a:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x0b:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x10:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x11:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x12:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x13:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x18:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x19:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x1a:
+    case GDC_CMD_DMAR + 0x1b:
+        gdc_cmd_dmar(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_UNK_5A:
+        gdc_cmd_unk_5a(s);
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_process_cmd(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    switch (s->cmdreg) {
+    case GDC_CMD_RESET:
+        gdc_cmd_reset(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_SYNC + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_SYNC + 1:
+        gdc_cmd_sync(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 1:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 2:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 3:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 4:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 5:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 6:
+    case GDC_CMD_SCROLL + 7:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 0:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 1:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 2:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 3:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 4:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 5:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 6:
+    case GDC_CMD_TEXTW + 7:
+        gdc_cmd_scroll(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_VECTW:
+        gdc_cmd_vectw(s);
+        break;
+    case GDC_CMD_CSRW:
+        gdc_cmd_csrw(s);
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+/* i/o */
+
+static void gdc_param_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->cmdreg != -1) {
+        if (s->params_count < 16) {
+            s->params[s->params_count++] = (uint8_t)(value & 0xff);
+        }
+        gdc_check_cmd(s);
+        if (s->cmdreg == -1) {
+            s->params_count = 0;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_cmdreg_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->cmdreg != -1) {
+        gdc_process_cmd(s);
+    }
+    s->cmdreg = (uint8_t)(value & 0xff);
+    s->params_count = 0;
+    gdc_check_cmd(s);
+}
+
+static uint32_t gdc_statreg_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+    uint32_t value = s->statreg;
+    int64_t vticks = qemu_get_clock(rt_clock) - v->vsync_clock;
+
+    if (vticks < GDC_VSTICKS) {
+        value |= GDC_STAT_VSYNC;
+    }
+    /*if (s->params_count == 0) {*/
+        value |= GDC_STAT_EMPTY;
+    /*}*/
+    if (s->params_count == 16) {
+        value |= GDC_STAT_FULL;
+    }
+    if (s->data_count > 0) {
+        value |= GDC_STAT_DRDY;
+    }
+    s->statreg &= ~(GDC_STAT_DMA | GDC_STAT_DRAW);
+    /* toggle hblank bit */
+    s->statreg ^= GDC_STAT_HBLANK;
+    return value;
+}
+
+static uint32_t gdc_data_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    return gdc_fifo_read(s);
+}
+
+/* display */
+
+static uint32_t *gdc_get_address(void *opaque, int ofs, uint32_t mask)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dirty & GDC_DIRTY_SCROLL) {
+        int x, y, ytop = 0, i;
+        uint32_t ra, sad;
+        int len;
+
+        for(i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
+            ra  = s->ra[4 * i + 0];
+            ra |= s->ra[4 * i + 1] << 8;
+            ra |= s->ra[4 * i + 2] << 16;
+            ra |= s->ra[4 * i + 3] << 24;
+            sad = (ra << 1) & mask;
+            len = (ra >> 20) & 0x3ff;
+
+            for(y = ytop; y < (ytop + len) && y < 480; y++) {
+                for(x = 0; x < 80; x++) {
+                    s->address[y][x] = sad;
+                    sad = (sad + ofs) & mask;
+                }
+            }
+            ytop += len;
+        }
+        s->dirty &= ~GDC_DIRTY_SCROLL;
+    }
+    return s->address[0];
+}
+
+static void gdc_get_cursor_address(void *opaque, uint32_t mask,
+                                   uint32_t *addr, int *top, int *bottom)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    if ((s->cs[0] & 0x80) && ((s->cs[1] & 0x20) || !(v->blink & 0x20))) {
+        *addr = (s->ead << 1) & mask;
+        *top = s->cs[1] & 0x1f;
+        *bottom = s->cs[2] >> 3;
+    } else {
+        *addr = -1;
+    }
+}
+
+/* interface */
+
+static int gdc_post_load(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    /* force update address */
+    s->dirty = 0xff;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static const VMStateDescription vmstate_gdc = {
+    .name = "pc98-gdc",
+    .version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id_old = 1,
+    .fields      = (VMStateField []) {
+        VMSTATE_INT32(cmdreg, struct gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(statreg, struct gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(sync, gdc_t, 16),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(zoom, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(zr, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(zw, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(ra, gdc_t, 16),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(cs, gdc_t, 3),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(pitch, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32(lad, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(vect, gdc_t, 11),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32(ead, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32(dad, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(maskl, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(maskh, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(mod, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(start, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(dirty, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(params, gdc_t, 16),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(params_count, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(data, gdc_t, GDC_BUFFERS),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(data_count, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(data_read, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(data_write, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_END_OF_LIST()
+    }
+};
+
+static void gdc_reset(void *opaque)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    gdc_cmd_reset(s);
+}
+
+static void gdc_init(void *opaque, void *vga,
+                     IOPortReadFunc *vram_read, IOPortWriteFunc *vram_write)
+{
+    gdc_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    for(i = 0; i <= GDC_TABLEMAX; i++) {
+        s->rt[i] = (int)((double)(1 << GDC_MULBIT) * (1 - sqrt(1 - pow((0.70710678118654 * i) / GDC_TABLEMAX, 2))));
+    }
+    s->vga = vga;
+    s->vram_read = vram_read;
+    s->vram_write = vram_write;
+}
+
+/***********************************************************/
+/* EGC (based on Neko Project 2) */
+
+/* shift sub */
+
+static const uint8_t egc_bytemask_u0[64] = {
+    0x80, 0x40, 0x20, 0x10, 0x08, 0x04, 0x02, 0x01,
+    0xc0, 0x60, 0x30, 0x18, 0x0c, 0x06, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xe0, 0x70, 0x38, 0x1c, 0x0e, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xf0, 0x78, 0x3c, 0x1e, 0x0f, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xf8, 0x7c, 0x3e, 0x1f, 0x0f, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xfc, 0x7e, 0x3f, 0x1f, 0x0f, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xfe, 0x7f, 0x3f, 0x1f, 0x0f, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01,
+    0xff, 0x7f, 0x3f, 0x1f, 0x0f, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01
+};
+static const uint8_t egc_bytemask_u1[8] =  {
+    0x80, 0xc0, 0xe0, 0xf0, 0xf8, 0xfc, 0xfe, 0xff
+};
+static const uint8_t egc_bytemask_d0[64] = {
+    0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80,
+    0x03, 0x06, 0x0c, 0x18, 0x30, 0x60, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0x07, 0x0e, 0x1c, 0x38, 0x70, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0x0f, 0x1e, 0x3c, 0x78, 0xf0, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0x1f, 0x3e, 0x7c, 0xf8, 0xf0, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0x3f, 0x7e, 0xfc, 0xf8, 0xf0, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0x7f, 0xfe, 0xfc, 0xf8, 0xf0, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80,
+    0xff, 0xfe, 0xfc, 0xf8, 0xf0, 0xe0, 0xc0, 0x80
+};
+static const uint8_t egc_bytemask_d1[8] = {
+    0x01, 0x03, 0x07, 0x0f, 0x1f, 0x3f, 0x7f, 0xff
+};
+
+static void egc_shift(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t src8, dst8;
+
+    s->remain = (s->leng & 0xfff) + 1;
+    s->func = (s->sft >> 12) & 1;
+    if (!s->func) {
+        s->inptr = s->buf;
+        s->outptr = s->buf;
+    } else {
+        s->inptr = s->buf + 4096 / 8 + 3;
+        s->outptr = s->buf + 4096 / 8 + 3;
+    }
+    s->srcbit = s->sft & 0x0f;
+    s->dstbit = (s->sft >> 4) & 0x0f;
+
+    src8 = s->srcbit & 0x07;
+    dst8 = s->dstbit & 0x07;
+    if (src8 < dst8) {
+        s->func += 2;
+        s->sft8bitr = dst8 - src8;
+        s->sft8bitl = 8 - s->sft8bitr;
+    }
+    else if (src8 > dst8) {
+        s->func += 4;
+        s->sft8bitl = src8 - dst8;
+        s->sft8bitr = 8 - s->sft8bitl;
+    }
+    s->stack = 0;
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upn_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+    }
+    s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = s->outptr[0];
+    s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = s->outptr[4];
+    s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = s->outptr[8];
+    s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = s->outptr[12];
+    s->outptr++;
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnn_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+    }
+    s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = s->outptr[0];
+    s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = s->outptr[4];
+    s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = s->outptr[8];
+    s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = s->outptr[12];
+    s->outptr--;
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upr_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+        s->dstbit = 0;
+        s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[0] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[4] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[8] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[12] >> s->sft8bitr);
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+        s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[0] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[1] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[4] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[5] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[8] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[9] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[12] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[13] >> s->sft8bitr);
+        s->outptr++;
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnr_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+        s->dstbit = 0;
+        s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[0] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[4] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[8] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[12] << s->sft8bitr);
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+        s->outptr--;
+        s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[1] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[0] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[5] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[4] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[9] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[8] << s->sft8bitr);
+        s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[13] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[12] << s->sft8bitr);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upl_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_u1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+    }
+    s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[0] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[1] >> s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[4] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[5] >> s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[8] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[9] >> s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[12] << s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[13] >> s->sft8bitr);
+    s->outptr++;
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnl_sub(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->dstbit >= 8) {
+        s->dstbit -= 8;
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (s->dstbit) {
+        if ((s->dstbit + s->remain) >= 8) {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (7 * 8)];
+            s->remain -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d0[s->dstbit + (s->remain - 1) * 8];
+            s->remain = 0;
+            s->dstbit = 0;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->remain >= 8) {
+            s->remain -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->srcmask.b[ext] = egc_bytemask_d1[s->remain - 1];
+            s->remain = 0;
+        }
+    }
+    s->outptr--;
+    s->vram_src.b[0][ext] = (s->outptr[1] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[0] << s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[1][ext] = (s->outptr[5] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[4] << s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[2][ext] = (s->outptr[9] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[8] << s->sft8bitr);
+    s->vram_src.b[3][ext] = (s->outptr[13] >> s->sft8bitl) | (s->outptr[12] << s->sft8bitr);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upn0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upn_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_upn0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upn_sub(s, 0);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_upn_sub(s, 1);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[1] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnn0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnn_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_dnn0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnn_sub(s, 1);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_dnn_sub(s, 0);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[0] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upr0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upr_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_upr0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upr_sub(s, 0);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_upr_sub(s, 1);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[1] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnr0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnr_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_dnr0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnr_sub(s, 1);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_dnr_sub(s, 0);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[0] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_upl0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upl_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_upl0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_upl_sub(s, 0);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_upl_sub(s, 1);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[1] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_sftb_dnl0(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(8 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (8 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnl_sub(s, ext);
+    if (!s->remain) {
+        egc_shift(s);
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_sftw_dnl0(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack < (uint32_t)(16 - s->dstbit)) {
+        s->srcmask.w = 0;
+        return;
+    }
+    s->stack -= (16 - s->dstbit);
+    egc_sftb_dnl_sub(s, 1);
+    if (s->remain) {
+        egc_sftb_dnl_sub(s, 0);
+        if (s->remain) {
+            return;
+        }
+    } else {
+        s->srcmask.b[0] = 0;
+    }
+    egc_shift(s);
+}
+
+/* shift */
+
+typedef void (*PC98EGCSFTB)(void *opaque, uint32_t ext);
+typedef void (*PC98EGCSFTW)(void *opaque);
+
+static const PC98EGCSFTB egc_sftb[6] = {
+    egc_sftb_upn0, egc_sftb_dnn0,
+    egc_sftb_upr0, egc_sftb_dnr0,
+    egc_sftb_upl0, egc_sftb_dnl0
+};
+static const PC98EGCSFTW egc_sftw[6] = {
+    egc_sftw_upn0, egc_sftw_dnn0,
+    egc_sftw_upr0, egc_sftw_dnr0,
+    egc_sftw_upl0, egc_sftw_dnl0
+};
+
+static void egc_shiftinput_byte(void *opaque, uint32_t ext)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack <= 16) {
+        if (s->srcbit >= 8) {
+            s->srcbit -= 8;
+        } else {
+            s->stack += (8 - s->srcbit);
+            s->srcbit = 0;
+        }
+        if (!(s->sft & 0x1000)) {
+            s->inptr++;
+        } else {
+            s->inptr--;
+        }
+    }
+    s->srcmask.b[ext] = 0xff;
+    (*egc_sftb[s->func])(s, ext);
+}
+
+static void egc_shiftinput_incw(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack <= 16) {
+        s->inptr += 2;
+        if (s->srcbit >= 8) {
+            s->outptr++;
+        }
+        s->stack += (16 - s->srcbit);
+        s->srcbit = 0;
+    }
+    s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+    (*egc_sftw[s->func])(s);
+}
+
+static void egc_shiftinput_decw(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->stack <= 16) {
+        s->inptr -= 2;
+        if (s->srcbit >= 8) {
+            s->outptr--;
+        }
+        s->stack += (16 - s->srcbit);
+        s->srcbit = 0;
+    }
+    s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+    (*egc_sftw[s->func])(s);
+}
+
+/* operation */
+
+#define PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTB \
+    do { \
+        if (s->ope & 0x400) { \
+            s->inptr[ 0] = (uint8_t)value; \
+            s->inptr[ 4] = (uint8_t)value; \
+            s->inptr[ 8] = (uint8_t)value; \
+            s->inptr[12] = (uint8_t)value; \
+            egc_shiftinput_byte(s, addr & 1); \
+        } \
+    } while(0)
+
+#define PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTW \
+    do { \
+        if (s->ope & 0x400) { \
+            if (!(s->sft & 0x1000)) { \
+                s->inptr[ 0] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 1] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[ 4] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 5] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[ 8] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 9] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[12] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[13] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                egc_shiftinput_incw(s); \
+            } else { \
+                s->inptr[-1] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 0] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[ 3] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 4] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[ 7] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[ 8] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                s->inptr[11] = (uint8_t)value; \
+                s->inptr[12] = (uint8_t)(value >> 8); \
+                egc_shiftinput_decw(s); \
+            }  \
+        } \
+    } while(0)
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_00(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_0f(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = ~s->vram_src.d[0];
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = ~s->vram_src.d[1];
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_c0(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    egcquad_t dst;
+
+    dst.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+    dst.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+    dst.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+    dst.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = (s->vram_src.d[0] & dst.d[0]);
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = (s->vram_src.d[1] & dst.d[1]);
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_f0(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    return s->vram_src.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_fc(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    egcquad_t dst;
+
+    dst.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+    dst.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+    dst.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+    dst.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = s->vram_src.d[0];
+    s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[0]) & dst.d[0]);
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = s->vram_src.d[1];
+    s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[1]) & dst.d[1]);
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_ff(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    return ~0;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_nd(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    egcquad_t pat;
+
+    switch(s->fgbg & 0x6000) {
+    case 0x2000:
+        pat.d[0] = s->bgc.d[0];
+        pat.d[1] = s->bgc.d[1];
+        break;
+    case 0x4000:
+        pat.d[0] = s->fgc.d[0];
+        pat.d[1] = s->fgc.d[1];
+        break;
+    default:
+        if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0100) {
+            pat.d[0] = s->vram_src.d[0];
+            pat.d[1] = s->vram_src.d[1];
+        } else {
+            pat.d[0] = s->patreg.d[0];
+            pat.d[1] = s->patreg.d[1];
+        }
+        break;
+    }
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = 0;
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = 0;
+    if (ope & 0x80) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & s->vram_src.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & s->vram_src.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x40) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & s->vram_src.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & s->vram_src.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x08) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & (~s->vram_src.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & (~s->vram_src.d[1]));
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x04) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & (~s->vram_src.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & (~s->vram_src.d[1]));
+    }
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_np(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    egcquad_t dst;
+
+    dst.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+    dst.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+    dst.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+    dst.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = 0;
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = 0;
+    if (ope & 0x80) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (s->vram_src.d[0] & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (s->vram_src.d[1] & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x20) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (s->vram_src.d[0] & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (s->vram_src.d[1] & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x08) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[0]) & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[1]) & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x02) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[0]) & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~s->vram_src.d[1]) & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_ope_xx(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    egcquad_t pat;
+    egcquad_t dst;
+
+    switch(s->fgbg & 0x6000) {
+    case 0x2000:
+        pat.d[0] = s->bgc.d[0];
+        pat.d[1] = s->bgc.d[1];
+        break;
+    case 0x4000:
+        pat.d[0] = s->fgc.d[0];
+        pat.d[1] = s->fgc.d[1];
+        break;
+    default:
+        if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0100) {
+            pat.d[0] = s->vram_src.d[0];
+            pat.d[1] = s->vram_src.d[1];
+        } else {
+            pat.d[0] = s->patreg.d[0];
+            pat.d[1] = s->patreg.d[1];
+        }
+        break;
+    }
+    dst.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+    dst.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+    dst.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+    dst.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+
+    s->vram_data.d[0] = 0;
+    s->vram_data.d[1] = 0;
+    if (ope & 0x80) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & s->vram_src.d[0] & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & s->vram_src.d[1] & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x40) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & s->vram_src.d[0] & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & s->vram_src.d[1] & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x20) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & s->vram_src.d[0] & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & s->vram_src.d[1] & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x10) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & s->vram_src.d[0] & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & s->vram_src.d[1] & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x08) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & (~s->vram_src.d[0]) & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & (~s->vram_src.d[1]) & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x04) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & (~s->vram_src.d[0]) & dst.d[0]);
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & (~s->vram_src.d[1]) & dst.d[1]);
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x02) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= (pat.d[0] & (~s->vram_src.d[0]) & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= (pat.d[1] & (~s->vram_src.d[1]) & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    if (ope & 0x01) {
+        s->vram_data.d[0] |= ((~pat.d[0]) & (~s->vram_src.d[0]) & (~dst.d[0]));
+        s->vram_data.d[1] |= ((~pat.d[1]) & (~s->vram_src.d[1]) & (~dst.d[1]));
+    }
+    return s->vram_data.q;
+}
+
+typedef uint64_t (*PC98EGCOPEFN)(void *opaque, uint8_t ope, uint32_t addr);
+
+static const PC98EGCOPEFN egc_opefn[256] = {
+    egc_ope_00, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_np, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_0f,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_np, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_np, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_c0, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_np, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_f0, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_np,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_nd, egc_ope_xx,
+    egc_ope_fc, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_xx, egc_ope_ff
+};
+
+static uint64_t egc_opeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint8_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t tmp;
+
+    s->mask2.w = s->mask.w;
+    switch(s->ope & 0x1800) {
+    case 0x0800:
+        PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTB;
+        s->mask2.w &= s->srcmask.w;
+        tmp = s->ope & 0xff;
+        return (*egc_opefn[tmp])(s, (uint8_t)tmp, addr & (~1));
+    case 0x1000:
+        switch(s->fgbg & 0x6000) {
+        case 0x2000:
+            return s->bgc.q;
+        case 0x4000:
+            return s->fgc.q;
+        default:
+            PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTB;
+            s->mask2.w &= s->srcmask.w;
+            return s->vram_src.q;
+        }
+        break;
+    default:
+        tmp = value & 0xff;
+        tmp = tmp | (tmp << 8);
+        s->vram_data.w[0] = (uint16_t)tmp;
+        s->vram_data.w[1] = (uint16_t)tmp;
+        s->vram_data.w[2] = (uint16_t)tmp;
+        s->vram_data.w[3] = (uint16_t)tmp;
+        return s->vram_data.q;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint64_t egc_opew(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint16_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t tmp;
+
+    s->mask2.w = s->mask.w;
+    switch(s->ope & 0x1800) {
+    case 0x0800:
+        PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTW;
+        s->mask2.w &= s->srcmask.w;
+        tmp = s->ope & 0xff;
+        return (*egc_opefn[tmp])(s, (uint8_t)tmp, addr);
+    case 0x1000:
+        switch(s->fgbg & 0x6000) {
+        case 0x2000:
+            return s->bgc.q;
+        case 0x4000:
+            return s->fgc.q;
+        default:
+            PC98EGC_OPE_SHIFTW;
+            s->mask2.w &= s->srcmask.w;
+            return s->vram_src.q;
+        }
+        break;
+    default:
+#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
+        value = ((value >> 8) & 0xff) | ((value & 0xff) << 8);
+#endif
+        s->vram_data.w[0] = (uint16_t)value;
+        s->vram_data.w[1] = (uint16_t)value;
+        s->vram_data.w[2] = (uint16_t)value;
+        s->vram_data.w[3] = (uint16_t)value;
+        return s->vram_data.q;
+    }
+}
+
+/* memory */
+
+static const uint16_t egc_maskword[16][4] = {
+    {0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000}, {0xffff, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000},
+    {0x0000, 0xffff, 0x0000, 0x0000}, {0xffff, 0xffff, 0x0000, 0x0000},
+    {0x0000, 0x0000, 0xffff, 0x0000}, {0xffff, 0x0000, 0xffff, 0x0000},
+    {0x0000, 0xffff, 0xffff, 0x0000}, {0xffff, 0xffff, 0xffff, 0x0000},
+    {0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0xffff}, {0xffff, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0xffff},
+    {0x0000, 0xffff, 0x0000, 0xffff}, {0xffff, 0xffff, 0x0000, 0xffff},
+    {0x0000, 0x0000, 0xffff, 0xffff}, {0xffff, 0x0000, 0xffff, 0xffff},
+    {0x0000, 0xffff, 0xffff, 0xffff}, {0xffff, 0xffff, 0xffff, 0xffff}
+};
+
+static uint32_t egc_mem_readb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+    uint32_t ext = addr1 & 1;
+
+    s->lastvram.b[0][ext] = s->vram_b[addr];
+    s->lastvram.b[1][ext] = s->vram_r[addr];
+    s->lastvram.b[2][ext] = s->vram_g[addr];
+    s->lastvram.b[3][ext] = s->vram_e[addr];
+
+    if (!(s->ope & 0x400)) {
+        s->inptr[0] = s->lastvram.b[0][ext];
+        s->inptr[4] = s->lastvram.b[1][ext];
+        s->inptr[8] = s->lastvram.b[2][ext];
+        s->inptr[12] = s->lastvram.b[3][ext];
+        egc_shiftinput_byte(s, ext);
+    }
+    if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0100) {
+        s->patreg.b[0][ext] = s->vram_b[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[1][ext] = s->vram_r[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[2][ext] = s->vram_g[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[3][ext] = s->vram_e[addr];
+    }
+    if (!(s->ope & 0x2000)) {
+        int pl = (s->fgbg >> 8) & 3;
+        if (!(s->ope & 0x400)) {
+            return s->vram_src.b[pl][ext];
+        } else {
+            return s->vram_ptr[addr | (0x8000 * pl)];
+        }
+    }
+    return s->vram_ptr[addr1];
+}
+
+static uint32_t egc_mem_readw(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+
+    if (!(addr & 1)) {
+        s->lastvram.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+        s->lastvram.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+        s->lastvram.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+        s->lastvram.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+
+        if (!(s->ope & 0x400)) {
+            if (!(s->sft & 0x1000)) {
+                s->inptr[ 0] = s->lastvram.b[0][0];
+                s->inptr[ 1] = s->lastvram.b[0][1];
+                s->inptr[ 4] = s->lastvram.b[1][0];
+                s->inptr[ 5] = s->lastvram.b[1][1];
+                s->inptr[ 8] = s->lastvram.b[2][0];
+                s->inptr[ 9] = s->lastvram.b[2][1];
+                s->inptr[12] = s->lastvram.b[3][0];
+                s->inptr[13] = s->lastvram.b[3][1];
+                egc_shiftinput_incw(s);
+            } else {
+                s->inptr[-1] = s->lastvram.b[0][0];
+                s->inptr[ 0] = s->lastvram.b[0][1];
+                s->inptr[ 3] = s->lastvram.b[1][0];
+                s->inptr[ 4] = s->lastvram.b[1][1];
+                s->inptr[ 7] = s->lastvram.b[2][0];
+                s->inptr[ 8] = s->lastvram.b[2][1];
+                s->inptr[11] = s->lastvram.b[3][0];
+                s->inptr[12] = s->lastvram.b[3][1];
+                egc_shiftinput_decw(s);
+            }
+        }
+        if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0100) {
+            s->patreg.d[0] = s->lastvram.d[0];
+            s->patreg.d[1] = s->lastvram.d[1];
+        }
+        if (!(s->ope & 0x2000)) {
+            int pl = (s->fgbg >> 8) & 3;
+            if (!(s->ope & 0x400)) {
+                return s->vram_src.w[pl];
+            } else {
+                return *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_ptr[addr | (0x8000 * pl)]);
+            }
+        }
+        return *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_ptr[addr1]);
+    } else if (!(s->sft & 0x1000)) {
+        uint16_t value = egc_mem_readb(s, addr1);
+        value |= egc_mem_readb(s, addr1 + 1) << 8;
+        return value;
+    } else {
+        uint16_t value = egc_mem_readb(s, addr1) << 8;
+        value |= egc_mem_readb(s, addr1 + 1);
+        return value;
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_mem_writeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1, uint8_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+    uint32_t ext = addr1 & 1;
+    egcquad_t data;
+
+    if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0200) {
+        s->patreg.b[0][ext] = s->vram_b[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[1][ext] = s->vram_r[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[2][ext] = s->vram_g[addr];
+        s->patreg.b[3][ext] = s->vram_e[addr];
+    }
+    data.q = egc_opeb(s, addr, value);
+    if (s->mask2.b[ext]) {
+        if (!(s->access & 1)) {
+            s->vram_b[addr] &= ~s->mask2.b[ext];
+            s->vram_b[addr] |= data.b[0][ext] & s->mask2.b[ext];
+        }
+        if (!(s->access & 2)) {
+            s->vram_r[addr] &= ~s->mask2.b[ext];
+            s->vram_r[addr] |= data.b[1][ext] & s->mask2.b[ext];
+        }
+        if (!(s->access & 4)) {
+            s->vram_g[addr] &= ~s->mask2.b[ext];
+            s->vram_g[addr] |= data.b[2][ext] & s->mask2.b[ext];
+        }
+        if (!(s->access & 8)) {
+            s->vram_e[addr] &= ~s->mask2.b[ext];
+            s->vram_e[addr] |= data.b[3][ext] & s->mask2.b[ext];
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_mem_writew(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1, uint16_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+    egcquad_t data;
+
+    if (!(addr & 1)) {
+        if ((s->ope & 0x0300) == 0x0200) {
+            s->patreg.w[0] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]);
+            s->patreg.w[1] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]);
+            s->patreg.w[2] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]);
+            s->patreg.w[3] = *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]);
+        }
+        data.q = egc_opew(s, addr, value);
+        if (s->mask2.w) {
+            if (!(s->access & 1)) {
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]) &= ~s->mask2.w;
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_b[addr]) |= data.w[0] & s->mask2.w;
+            }
+            if (!(s->access & 2)) {
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]) &= ~s->mask2.w;
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_r[addr]) |= data.w[1] & s->mask2.w;
+            }
+            if (!(s->access & 4)) {
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]) &= ~s->mask2.w;
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_g[addr]) |= data.w[2] & s->mask2.w;
+            }
+            if (!(s->access & 8)) {
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]) &= ~s->mask2.w;
+                *(uint16_t *)(&s->vram_e[addr]) |= data.w[3] & s->mask2.w;
+            }
+        }
+    } else if (!(s->sft & 0x1000)) {
+        egc_mem_writeb(s, addr1, (uint8_t)value);
+        egc_mem_writeb(s, addr1 + 1, (uint8_t)(value >> 8));
+    } else {
+        egc_mem_writeb(s, addr1, (uint8_t)(value >> 8));
+        egc_mem_writeb(s, addr1 + 1, (uint8_t)value);
+    }
+}
+
+/* i/o */
+
+static void egc_ioport_writeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    if (!((v->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) && v->mode2[MODE2_EGC])) {
+        return;
+    }
+    switch(addr) {
+    case 0x4a0:
+        s->access &= 0xff00;
+        s->access |= value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a1:
+        s->access &= 0x00ff;
+        s->access |= value << 8;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a2:
+        s->fgbg &= 0xff00;
+        s->fgbg |= value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a3:
+        s->fgbg &= 0x00ff;
+        s->fgbg |= value << 8;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a4:
+        s->ope &= 0xff00;
+        s->ope |= value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a5:
+        s->ope &= 0x00ff;
+        s->ope |= value << 8;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a6:
+        s->fg &= 0xff00;
+        s->fg |= value;
+        s->fgc.d[0] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 0);
+        s->fgc.d[1] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 2);
+        break;
+    case 0x4a7:
+        s->fg &= 0x00ff;
+        s->fg |= value << 8;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a8:
+        if (!(s->fgbg & 0x6000)) {
+            s->mask.b[0] = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x4a9:
+        if (!(s->fgbg & 0x6000)) {
+            s->mask.b[1] = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x4aa:
+        s->bg &= 0xff00;
+        s->bg |= value;
+        s->bgc.d[0] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 0);
+        s->bgc.d[1] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 2);
+        break;
+    case 0x4ab:
+        s->bg &= 0x00ff;
+        s->bg |= value << 8;
+        break;
+    case 0x4ac:
+        s->sft &= 0xff00;
+        s->sft |= value;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    case 0x4ad:
+        s->sft &= 0x00ff;
+        s->sft |= value << 8;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    case 0x4ae:
+        s->leng &= 0xff00;
+        s->leng |= value;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    case 0x4af:
+        s->leng &= 0x00ff;
+        s->leng |= value << 8;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+static void egc_ioport_writew(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    if (!((v->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) && v->mode2[MODE2_EGC])) {
+        return;
+    }
+    switch(addr) {
+    case 0x4a0:
+        s->access = value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a2:
+        s->fgbg = value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a4:
+        s->ope = value;
+        break;
+    case 0x4a6:
+        s->fg = value;
+        s->fgc.d[0] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 0);
+        s->fgc.d[1] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 2);
+        break;
+    case 0x4a8:
+        if (!(s->fgbg & 0x6000)) {
+            s->mask.w = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x4aa:
+        s->bg = value;
+        s->bgc.d[0] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 0);
+        s->bgc.d[1] = *(uint32_t *)(egc_maskword[value & 0x0f] + 2);
+        break;
+    case 0x4ac:
+        s->sft = value;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    case 0x4ae:
+        s->leng = value;
+        egc_shift(s);
+        s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+/* interface */
+
+static void egc_set_vram(void *opaque, uint8_t *vram_ptr)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->vram_ptr = vram_ptr;
+    s->vram_b = vram_ptr + 0x00000;
+    s->vram_r = vram_ptr + 0x08000;
+    s->vram_g = vram_ptr + 0x10000;
+    s->vram_e = vram_ptr + 0x18000;
+}
+
+static void egc_pre_save(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->inptr_vmstate = s->inptr - s->buf;
+    s->outptr_vmstate = s->outptr - s->buf;
+}
+
+static int egc_post_load(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->inptr = s->buf + s->inptr_vmstate;
+    s->outptr = s->buf + s->outptr_vmstate;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static const VMStateDescription vmstate_egc = {
+    .name = "pc98-egc",
+    .version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id_old = 1,
+    .fields      = (VMStateField []) {
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(access, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(fgbg, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(ope, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(fg, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(mask.w, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(bg, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(sft, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(leng, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT64(lastvram.q, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT64(patreg.q, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT64(fgc.q, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT64(bgc.q, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(func, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32(remain, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32(stack, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(inptr_vmstate, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(outptr_vmstate, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(mask2.w, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(srcmask.w, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(srcbit, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(dstbit, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(sft8bitl, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(sft8bitr, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32_ARRAY(padding_b, egc_t, 4),
+        VMSTATE_UINT32_ARRAY(padding_a, egc_t, 4),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(buf, egc_t, 528),
+        VMSTATE_END_OF_LIST()
+    }
+};
+
+static void egc_reset(void *opaque)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+    vga_t *v = s->vga;
+
+    memset(s, 0, sizeof(egc_t));
+    s->vga = v;
+    s->access = 0xfff0;
+    s->fgbg = 0x00ff;
+    s->mask.w = 0xffff;
+    s->leng = 0x000f;
+    egc_shift(s);
+    s->srcmask.w = 0xffff;
+}
+
+static void egc_init(void *opaque, void *vga)
+{
+    egc_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->vga = vga;
+}
+
+/***********************************************************/
+/* NEC PC-9821 VGA */
+
+enum {
+    PALETTE_G           = 0,
+    PALETTE_R           = 1,
+    PALETTE_B           = 2,
+};
+
+enum {
+    DIRTY_TVRAM         = 0x01,
+    DIRTY_VRAM0         = 0x02,
+    DIRTY_VRAM1         = 0x04,
+    DIRTY_PALETTE       = 0x10,
+    DIRTY_DISPLAY       = 0x80,
+};
+
+enum {
+    ATTR_ST = 0x01,
+    ATTR_BL = 0x02,
+    ATTR_RV = 0x04,
+    ATTR_UL = 0x08,
+    ATTR_VL = 0x10,
+    ATTR_COL = 0xe0,
+};
+
+typedef struct vga_isabus_t {
+    ISADevice dev;
+    uint32_t isairq;
+    struct vga_t state;
+} vga_isabus_t;
+
+/* vsync */
+
+static void vsync_timer_handler(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t prev_blink = s->blink++;
+
+    /* blink */
+    if ((prev_blink & 0x20) != (s->blink & 0x20)) {
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+
+    /* vsync irq */
+    if (s->crtv) {
+        qemu_set_irq(s->irq, 1);
+        qemu_set_irq(s->irq, 0);
+        s->crtv = 0;
+    }
+
+    /* set next timer */
+    s->vsync_clock = qemu_get_clock(rt_clock);
+    qemu_mod_timer(s->vsync_timer, s->vsync_clock + GDC_VTICKS);
+}
+
+static void vsync_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->crtv = 1;
+}
+
+/* crtc */
+
+static void crtc_pl_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->pl != value) {
+        s->pl = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+static void crtc_bl_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->bl != value) {
+        s->bl = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+static void crtc_cl_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->cl != value) {
+        s->cl = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+static void crtc_ssl_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ssl != value) {
+        s->ssl = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+static void crtc_sur_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->sur != value) {
+        s->sur = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+static void crtc_sdr_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->sdr != value) {
+        s->sdr = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    }
+}
+
+/* grcg */
+
+static void grcg_mode_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->grcg_mode = value;
+    s->grcg_tile_cnt = 0;
+}
+
+static void grcg_tile_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->grcg_tile_b[s->grcg_tile_cnt] = value;
+    s->grcg_tile_w[s->grcg_tile_cnt] = (value & 0xff) | (value << 8);
+    s->grcg_tile_cnt = (s->grcg_tile_cnt + 1) & 3;
+}
+
+static uint32_t grcg_mem_readb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+
+    if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_RW_MODE) {
+        /* invalid */
+        return s->vram16_draw_b[addr];
+    } else {
+        /* TCR */
+        uint8_t value = 0;
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            value |= s->vram16_draw_b[addr] ^ s->grcg_tile_b[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            value |= s->vram16_draw_r[addr] ^ s->grcg_tile_b[1];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            value |= s->vram16_draw_g[addr] ^ s->grcg_tile_b[2];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            value |= s->vram16_draw_e[addr] ^ s->grcg_tile_b[3];
+        }
+        return value ^ 0xff;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t grcg_mem_readw(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+
+    if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_RW_MODE) {
+        /* invalid */
+        return *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr);
+    } else {
+        /* TCR */
+        uint16_t value = 0;
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            value |= *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) ^ s->grcg_tile_w[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            value |= *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_r + addr) ^ s->grcg_tile_w[1];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            value |= *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_g + addr) ^ s->grcg_tile_w[2];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            value |= *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_e + addr) ^ s->grcg_tile_w[3];
+        }
+        return ~value;
+    }
+}
+
+static void grcg_mem_writeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1, uint8_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+
+    if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_RW_MODE) {
+        /* RMW */
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_b[addr] &= ~value;
+            s->vram16_draw_b[addr] |= s->grcg_tile_b[0] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_r[addr] &= ~value;
+            s->vram16_draw_r[addr] |= s->grcg_tile_b[1] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_g[addr] &= ~value;
+            s->vram16_draw_g[addr] |= s->grcg_tile_b[2] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_e[addr] &= ~value;
+            s->vram16_draw_e[addr] |= s->grcg_tile_b[3] & value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        /* TDW */
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_b[addr] = s->grcg_tile_b[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_r[addr] = s->grcg_tile_b[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_g[addr] = s->grcg_tile_b[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            s->vram16_draw_e[addr] = s->grcg_tile_b[0];
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void grcg_mem_writew(void *opaque, uint32_t addr1, uint16_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x7fff;
+
+    if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_RW_MODE) {
+        /* RMW */
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) &= ~value;
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) |= s->grcg_tile_w[0] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_r + addr) &= ~value;
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_r + addr) |= s->grcg_tile_w[1] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_g + addr) &= ~value;
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_g + addr) |= s->grcg_tile_w[2] & value;
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_e + addr) &= ~value;
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_e + addr) |= s->grcg_tile_w[3] & value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        /* TDW */
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_0)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) = s->grcg_tile_w[0];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_1)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_r + addr) = s->grcg_tile_w[1];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_2)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_g + addr) = s->grcg_tile_w[2];
+        }
+        if (!(s->grcg_mode & GRCG_PLANE_3)) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_e + addr) = s->grcg_tile_w[3];
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* cg window */
+
+static void cgwindow_code2_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->font_code2 = value;
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_code1_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->font_code1 = value;
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_line_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->font_line = value;
+}
+
+static void font_write(void *opaque, uint8_t font_line, uint8_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t offset, code, lr;
+    uint8_t type = s->font_code1 & 0xff;
+
+    if (type == 0x56 || type == 0x57) {
+        offset = ((s->font_code1 << 8) | s->font_code2) & 0x1ff;
+        s->gaiji[(offset << 6) + (font_line & 0x3f)] = value;
+
+        code = (s->font_code2 << 8) | s->font_code1;
+        lr = (~font_line & 0x20) << 6;
+        s->font[((code & 0x7f7f) << 4) + lr + (font_line & 0x0f)] = value;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint8_t font_read(void *opaque, uint8_t font_line)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t offset, code, lr;
+    uint8_t type = s->font_code1 & 0xff;
+
+    if (type == 0x56 || type == 0x57) {
+        offset = ((s->font_code1 << 8) | s->font_code2) & 0x1ff;
+        return s->gaiji[(offset << 6) + (font_line & 0x3f)];
+    } else {
+        code = (s->font_code2 << 8) | s->font_code1;
+        lr = (~font_line & 0x20) << 6;
+        if (type >= 0x09 && type < 0x0c) {
+            if (!lr) {
+                return s->font[((code & 0x7f7f) << 4) + (font_line & 0x0f)];
+            }
+        } else if (s->font_code2) {
+            return s->font[((code & 0x7f7f) << 4) + lr + (font_line & 0x0f)];
+        } else if (!(s->font_line & 0x10)) {
+            return s->font[0x80000 + (code << 4) + (font_line & 0x0f)];
+        }
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_pattern_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    font_write(s, s->font_line, value);
+}
+
+static uint32_t cgwindow_pattern_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    return font_read(s, s->font_line);
+}
+
+static uint32_t cgwindow_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        uint8_t font_line = ((addr >> 1) & 0x1f) | ((addr & 1) ? 0 : 0x20);
+        return font_read(opaque, font_line);
+    } else {
+        return 0xff;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t cgwindow_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        uint16_t value = cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 0);
+        value |= cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 1) << 8;
+        return value;
+    } else {
+        return 0xffff;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t cgwindow_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        uint32_t value = cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 0);
+        value |= cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 1) << 8;
+        value |= cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 2) << 16;
+        value |= cgwindow_readb(opaque, addr + 3) << 24;
+        return value;
+    } else {
+        return 0xffffffff;
+    }
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        uint8_t font_line = ((addr >> 1) & 0x1f) | ((addr & 1) ? 0 : 0x20);
+        font_write(opaque, font_line, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 0, value & 0xff);
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 1, (value >> 8) & 0xff);
+    }
+}
+
+static void cgwindow_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    if (addr < 0x1000) {
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 0, value & 0xff);
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 1, (value >> 8) & 0xff);
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 2, (value >> 16) & 0xff);
+        cgwindow_writeb(opaque, addr + 3, (value >> 24) & 0xff);
+    }
+}
+
+/* memory bank switch */
+
+static void ems_select_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (value == 0x20) {
+        s->ems_selected = 0;
+    } else if(value == 0x22) {
+        s->ems_selected = 1;
+    }
+}
+
+/* mode flip-flop */
+
+static void mode_flipflop1_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int num = (value >> 1) & 7;
+
+    if (s->mode1[num] != (value & 1)) {
+        switch (num) {
+        case MODE1_ATRSEL:
+        case MODE1_COLUMN:
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+            break;
+        case MODE1_200LINE:
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM0 | DIRTY_VRAM1;
+            break;
+        case MODE1_DISP:
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+            break;
+        }
+        s->mode1[num] = value & 1;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t mode_flipflop1_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t value = 0;
+
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_ATRSEL]) {
+        value |= 0x01;
+    }
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_GRAPHIC]) {
+        value |= 0x04;
+    }
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_COLUMN]) {
+        value |= 0x08;
+    }
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_MEMSW]) {
+        value |= 0x40;
+    }
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_KAC]) {
+        value |= 0x80;
+    }
+    return value | 0x32;
+}
+
+static void mode_flipflop2_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value1)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t value = value1 & 1;
+    int num = (value1 >> 1) & 0x7f;
+
+    switch (num) {
+    case 0x00:
+        /* select 8/16 color */
+        if (s->mode2[num] != value) {
+            if (!s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+                s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+            }
+            s->mode2[num] = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x02:
+        /* select grcg/egc mode */
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_WRITE_MASK]) {
+            s->mode2[num] = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x10:
+        /* select 16/256 color */
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_WRITE_MASK]) {
+            if (s->mode2[num] != value) {
+                s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE | DIRTY_VRAM0 | DIRTY_VRAM1;
+                s->mode2[num] = value;
+            }
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x34:
+        /* select 400/480 lines */
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_WRITE_MASK]) {
+            if (s->mode2[num] != value) {
+                s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM0 | DIRTY_VRAM1;
+                s->mode2[num] = value;
+            }
+        }
+        break;
+    case 0x11: case 0x12: case 0x13: case 0x15: case 0x16:
+    case 0x30: case 0x31: case 0x33: case 0x65:
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_WRITE_MASK]) {
+            s->mode2[num] = value;
+        }
+        break;
+    default:
+        s->mode2[num] = value;
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t mode_flipflop2_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int value = 0;
+
+    if (s->mode3[MODE3_LINE_CONNECT]) {
+        value |= 0x01;
+    }
+    if (s->mode3[MODE3_WRITE_MASK]) {
+        value |= 0x10;
+    }
+    return value | 0xee;
+}
+
+static void mode_flipflop3_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    switch (value & 0xfe) {
+    case 0x02:
+        s->mode3[MODE3_WRITE_MASK] = value & 1;
+        break;
+    default:
+        if (s->mode3[MODE3_WRITE_MASK]) {
+            s->mode3[(value >> 1) & 0x7f] = value & 1;
+        }
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t mode_flipflop3_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int value = 0;
+
+    if (s->mode3[MODE3_WRITE_MASK]) {
+        value |= 0x01;
+    }
+    if (s->mode3[MODE3_LINE_COLOR]) {
+        value |= 0x10;
+    }
+    if (s->mode3[MODE3_NPC_COLOR]) {
+        value |= 0x80;
+    }
+    return value | 0x6e;
+}
+
+static void mode_select_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->mode_select = value;
+}
+
+static uint32_t mode_status_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t value = 0;
+
+    if (s->mode2[0x42]) {
+        value |= 2;
+    }
+    switch (s->mode_select) {
+    case 0x01: if (s->mode1[0x01]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x02: if (s->mode1[0x04]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x03: if (s->mode1[0x07]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x04: if (s->mode2[0x00]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x05: if (s->mode2[0x20]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x06: if (s->mode2[0x22]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x07: if (s->mode2[0x02]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x08: if (s->mode2[0x03]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x09: if (s->mode2[0x41]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x0a: if (s->mode2[0x10]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x0b: if (s->mode2[0x31]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x0d: if (s->mode2[0x34]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x0e: if (s->mode2[0x11]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x0f: if (s->mode2[0x12]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x10: if (s->mode2[0x35]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x11: if (s->mode2[0x13]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x12: if (s->mode2[0x16]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x13: if (s->mode2[0x14]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x14: if (s->mode2[0x33]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x15: if (s->mode2[0x30]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x16: if (s->mode2[0x61]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x17: if (s->mode2[0x36]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x18: if (s->mode2[0x15]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x19: if (s->mode2[0x24]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1a: if (s->mode2[0x64]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1b: if (s->mode2[0x17]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1c: if (s->mode2[0x37]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1d: if (s->mode2[0x60]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1e: if (s->mode2[0x23]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    case 0x1f: if (s->mode2[0x35]) { value |= 1; } break;
+    }
+    return value;
+}
+
+/* vram bank */
+
+static void vram_disp_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (value & 1) {
+        if (s->bank_disp != DIRTY_VRAM1) {
+            s->vram16_disp_b = s->vram16 + 0x20000;
+            s->vram16_disp_r = s->vram16 + 0x28000;
+            s->vram16_disp_g = s->vram16 + 0x30000;
+            s->vram16_disp_e = s->vram16 + 0x38000;
+            s->vram256_disp = s->vram256 + 0x40000;
+            s->bank_disp = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->bank_disp != DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+            s->vram16_disp_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+            s->vram16_disp_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+            s->vram16_disp_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+            s->vram16_disp_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+            s->vram256_disp = s->vram256 + 0x00000;
+            s->bank_disp = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_disp_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->bank_disp == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+        /*return 0;*/
+        return 0xfe;
+    } else {
+        /*return 1;*/
+        return 0xff;
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_draw_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (value & 1) {
+        s->vram16_draw_b = s->vram16 + 0x20000;
+        s->vram16_draw_r = s->vram16 + 0x28000;
+        s->vram16_draw_g = s->vram16 + 0x30000;
+        s->vram16_draw_e = s->vram16 + 0x38000;
+        s->bank_draw = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+    } else {
+        s->vram16_draw_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+        s->vram16_draw_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+        s->vram16_draw_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+        s->vram16_draw_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+        s->bank_draw = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    }
+    egc_set_vram(&s->egc, s->vram16_draw_b);
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_draw_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->bank_draw == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+        /*return 0;*/
+        return 0xfe;
+    } else {
+        /*return 1;*/
+        return 0xff;
+    }
+}
+
+/* palette */
+
+static void palette_a8_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        s->anapal_select = value;
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        s->anapal_select = value;
+    } else {
+        if (s->digipal[0] != value) {
+            s->digipal[0] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t palette_a8_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal_select;
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal_select;
+    } else {
+        return s->digipal[0];
+    }
+}
+
+static void palette_aa_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select] != value) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] != (value & 0x0f)) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] = value & 0x0f;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->digipal[1] != value) {
+            s->digipal[1] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t palette_aa_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select];
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_G][s->anapal_select & 0x0f];
+    } else {
+        return s->digipal[1];
+    }
+}
+
+static void palette_ac_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select] != value) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] != (value & 0x0f)) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] = value & 0x0f;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->digipal[2] != value) {
+            s->digipal[2] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t palette_ac_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select];
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_R][s->anapal_select & 0x0f];
+    } else {
+        return s->digipal[2];
+    }
+}
+
+static void palette_ae_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select] != value) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        if (s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] != (value & 0x0f)) {
+            s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select & 0x0f] = value & 0x0f;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (s->digipal[3] != value) {
+            s->digipal[3] = value;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_PALETTE;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t palette_ae_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select];
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        return s->anapal[PALETTE_B][s->anapal_select & 0x0f];
+    } else {
+        return s->digipal[3];
+    }
+}
+
+/* horizontal frequency */
+
+static void horiz_freq_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+}
+
+static uint32_t horiz_freq_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* software dip-switch */
+
+static const uint8_t swdip_parity[256] = {
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0,
+    1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1,
+};
+
+static void swdip_data_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t data = (uint8_t)value;
+    uint8_t bank;
+
+    if (s->swdip_bank & 0x40) {
+        bank = ((addr >> 8) & 0x0f) + 8;
+    } else {
+        bank = ((addr >> 8) & 0x0f) - 4;
+    }
+    if (bank == 2) {
+        /* FDD 1MB FIX */
+        data = (data & 0xfe) | 0x22;
+        if (swdip_parity[data]) {
+            data ^= 0x80;
+        }
+    } else if (bank == 11) {
+        /* 16MB memory */
+        data |= 1;
+        if (swdip_parity[data]) {
+            data ^= 0x80;
+        }
+    }
+    if (s->swdip[bank] != data) {
+        s->swdip[bank] = data;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t swdip_data_read(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t bank;
+ 
+    if (s->swdip_bank & 0x40) {
+        bank = ((addr >> 8) & 0x0f) + 8;
+    } else {
+        bank = ((addr >> 8) & 0x0f) - 4;
+    }
+    return s->swdip[bank];
+}
+
+static void swdip_bank_write(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->swdip_bank = value;
+}
+
+/* cirrus vga interface */
+
+static uint32_t cirrus_regnum_readb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    return s->cirrus_regnum;
+}
+
+static void cirrus_regnum_writeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->cirrus_regnum = value;
+}
+
+static uint32_t cirrus_reg_readb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->cirrus_regnum == 0x00) {
+        return 0x5b; /* PC-9801BX4 on board */
+    } else {
+        return s->cirrus_reg[s->cirrus_regnum];
+    }
+}
+
+static void cirrus_reg_writeb(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->cirrus_reg[s->cirrus_regnum] = value;
+}
+
+static void cirrus_reg_writew(void *opaque, uint32_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    s->cirrus_regnum = value & 0xff;
+    s->cirrus_reg[s->cirrus_regnum] = value >> 8;
+}
+
+/* memory */
+
+static uint32_t tvram_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        return s->tvram[addr];
+    } else {
+        return cgwindow_readb(s, addr & 0x3fff);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t tvram_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        return *(uint16_t *)(s->tvram + addr);
+    } else {
+        return cgwindow_readw(s, addr & 0x3fff);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t tvram_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        return *(uint32_t *)(s->tvram + addr);
+    } else {
+        return cgwindow_readl(s, addr & 0x3fff);
+    }
+}
+
+static void tvram_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x3fe2) {
+        s->tvram[addr] = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    } else if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        /* memory switch */
+        if (s->mode1[MODE1_MEMSW]) {
+            s->tvram[addr] = value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        cgwindow_writeb(s, addr & 0x3fff, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void tvram_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x3fe2) {
+        *(uint16_t *)(s->tvram + addr) = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    } else if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        /* memory switch */
+        if (s->mode1[MODE1_MEMSW]) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->tvram + addr) = value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        cgwindow_writew(s, addr & 0x3fff, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void tvram_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (addr < 0x3fe2) {
+        *(uint32_t *)(s->tvram + addr) = value;
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_TVRAM;
+    } else if (addr < 0x4000) {
+        /* memory switch */
+        if (s->mode1[MODE1_MEMSW]) {
+            *(uint32_t *)(s->tvram + addr) = value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        cgwindow_writel(s, addr & 0x3fff, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            return s->vram256_draw_0[addr];
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            return s->vram256_draw_1[addr & 0x7fff];
+        }
+        return 0xff;
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            return egc_mem_readb(s, addr);
+        } else {
+            return grcg_mem_readb(s, addr);
+        }
+    } else {
+        return s->vram16_draw_b[addr];
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            return *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256_draw_0 + addr);
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            return *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256_draw_1 + (addr & 0x7fff));
+        }
+        return 0xffff;
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            return egc_mem_readw(s, addr);
+        } else {
+            return grcg_mem_readw(s, addr);
+        }
+    } else {
+        return *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t value;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            return *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256_draw_0 + addr);
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            return *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256_draw_1 + (addr & 0x7fff));
+        }
+        return 0xffffffff;
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            value = egc_mem_readw(s, addr);
+            value |= egc_mem_readw(s, addr + 2) << 16;
+            return value;
+        } else {
+            value = grcg_mem_readw(s, addr);
+            value |= grcg_mem_readw(s, addr + 2) << 16;
+            return value;
+        }
+    } else {
+        return *(uint32_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            s->vram256_draw_0[addr] = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_0;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            s->vram256_draw_1[addr & 0x7fff] = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_1;
+        }
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            egc_mem_writeb(s, addr, value);
+        } else {
+            grcg_mem_writeb(s, addr, value);
+        }
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    } else {
+        s->vram16_draw_b[addr] = value;
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256_draw_0 + addr) = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_0;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256_draw_1 + (addr & 0x7fff)) = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_1;
+        }
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            egc_mem_writew(s, addr, value);
+        } else {
+            grcg_mem_writew(s, addr, value);
+        }
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    } else {
+        *(uint16_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) = value;
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        if (addr < 0x8000) {
+            *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256_draw_0 + addr) = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_0;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256_draw_1 + (addr & 0x7fff)) = value;
+            s->dirty |= s->bank256_draw_1;
+        }
+    } else if (s->grcg_mode & GRCG_CG_MODE) {
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_EGC]) {
+            egc_mem_writew(s, addr, value & 0xffff);
+            egc_mem_writew(s, addr + 2, value >> 16);
+        } else {
+            grcg_mem_writew(s, addr, value & 0xffff);
+            grcg_mem_writew(s, addr + 2, value >> 16);
+        }
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    } else {
+        *(uint32_t *)(s->vram16_draw_b + addr) = value;
+        s->dirty |= s->bank_draw;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_b0000_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        return s->ems[addr];
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readb(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else {
+        return vram_readb(opaque, addr + 0x8000);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_b0000_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        return *(uint16_t *)(s->ems + addr);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readw(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else {
+        return vram_readw(opaque, addr + 0x8000);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_b0000_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        return *(uint32_t *)(s->ems + addr);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readl(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else {
+        return vram_readl(opaque, addr + 0x8000);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_b0000_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        s->ems[addr] = value;
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writeb(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else {
+        vram_writeb(opaque, addr + 0x8000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_b0000_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        *(uint16_t *)(s->ems + addr) = value;
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writew(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else {
+        vram_writew(opaque, addr + 0x8000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_b0000_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->ems_selected) {
+        *(uint32_t *)(s->ems + addr) = value;
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writel(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else {
+        vram_writel(opaque, addr + 0x8000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_e0000_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        switch (addr & 0x7fff) {
+        case 0x0004:
+            return s->vram256_bank_0 & 0xff;
+        case 0x0005:
+            return s->vram256_bank_0 >> 8;
+        case 0x0006:
+            return s->vram256_bank_1 & 0xff;
+        case 0x0007:
+            return s->vram256_bank_1 >> 8;
+        case 0x0100:
+            return 0; /* support packed pixel only */
+        }
+        return 0xff;
+    } else {
+        return vram_readb(opaque, addr + 0x18000);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_e0000_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        switch (addr & 0x7fff) {
+        case 0x0004:
+            return s->vram256_bank_0;
+        case 0x0006:
+            return s->vram256_bank_1;
+        case 0x0100:
+            return 0; /* support packed pixel only */
+        }
+        return 0xffff;
+    } else {
+        return vram_readw(opaque, addr + 0x18000);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_e0000_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        uint32_t value;
+        value = vram_e0000_readw(opaque, addr);
+        value |= vram_e0000_readw(opaque, addr + 1) << 16;
+        return value;
+    } else {
+        return vram_readl(opaque, addr + 0x18000);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_e0000_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        switch (addr & 0x7fff) {
+        case 0x0004:
+            s->vram256_bank_0 = value;
+            if (value & 0x08) {
+                s->bank256_draw_0 = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+            } else {
+                s->bank256_draw_0 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+            }
+            s->vram256_draw_0 = s->vram256 + (s->vram256_bank_0 & 0x0f) * 0x8000;
+            break;
+        case 0x0006:
+            s->vram256_bank_1 = value;
+            if (value & 0x08) {
+                s->bank256_draw_1 = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+            } else {
+                s->bank256_draw_1 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+            }
+            s->vram256_draw_1 = s->vram256 + (s->vram256_bank_1 & 0x0f) * 0x8000;
+            break;
+        }
+    } else {
+        vram_writeb(opaque, addr + 0x18000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_e0000_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        vram_e0000_writeb(opaque, addr, value);
+    } else {
+        vram_writew(opaque, addr + 0x18000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_e0000_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        vram_e0000_writew(opaque, addr, value & 0xffff);
+        vram_e0000_writew(opaque, addr + 2, value >> 16);
+    } else {
+        vram_writel(opaque, addr + 0x18000, value);
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_f00000_readb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readb(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return s->vram256[addr];
+    }
+    return 0xff;
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_f00000_readw(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readw(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256 + addr);
+    }
+    return 0xffff;
+}
+
+static uint32_t vram_f00000_readl(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        return pc98_cirrus_vram_readl(s->cirrus_vga, addr);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        return *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256 + addr);
+    }
+    return 0xffffffff;
+}
+
+static void vram_f00000_writeb(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writeb(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        s->vram256[addr] = value;
+        if (addr & 0x40000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM1;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM0;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_f00000_writew(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writew(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        *(uint16_t *)(s->vram256 + addr) = value;
+        if (addr & 0x40000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM1;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM0;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void vram_f00000_writel(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vram_writel(s->cirrus_vga, addr, value);
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        *(uint32_t *)(s->vram256 + addr) = value;
+        if (addr & 0x40000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM1;
+        } else if (addr < 0x10000) {
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_VRAM0;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* gdc */
+
+static uint32_t gdc_tvram_read(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr1)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x3fff;
+
+    return s->tvram[addr];
+}
+
+static void gdc_tvram_write(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr1, uint32_t value)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x3fff;
+
+    if (addr < 0x3fe2) {
+        s->tvram[addr] = value;
+    }
+}
+
+static uint32_t gdc_vram_read(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr1)
+{
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x1ffff;
+
+    if (addr < 0x18000) {
+        return vram_readb(opaque, addr);
+    } else {
+        return vram_e0000_readb(opaque, addr & 0x7fff);
+    }
+}
+
+static void gdc_vram_write(void *opaque, target_phys_addr_t addr1, uint32_t value)
+{
+    uint32_t addr = addr1 & 0x1ffff;
+
+    if (addr < 0x18000) {
+        return vram_writeb(opaque, addr, value);
+    } else {
+        return vram_e0000_writeb(opaque, addr & 0x7fff, value);
+    }
+}
+
+/* render */
+
+static inline uint32_t rgb_to_pixel(int depth, uint8_t r, uint8_t g, uint8_t b)
+{
+    switch(depth) {
+    default:
+    case 8:
+        return rgb_to_pixel8(r, g, b);
+    case 15:
+        return rgb_to_pixel15(r, g, b);
+    case 16:
+        return rgb_to_pixel16(r, g, b);
+    case 32:
+        return rgb_to_pixel32(r, g, b);
+    }
+}
+
+static void update_palette(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int depth;
+    int i, j;
+    uint8_t r, g, b;
+
+    depth = ds_get_bits_per_pixel(s->ds);
+    for(i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
+        r = (i & 2) ? 0xff : 0;
+        g = (i & 4) ? 0xff : 0;
+        b = (i & 1) ? 0xff : 0;
+        s->palette_chr[i] = rgb_to_pixel(depth, r, g, b);
+    }
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        for(i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
+            r = s->anapal[PALETTE_R][i];
+            g = s->anapal[PALETTE_G][i];
+            b = s->anapal[PALETTE_B][i];
+            s->palette_gfx[i] = rgb_to_pixel(depth, r, g, b);
+        }
+    } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+        for(i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
+            r = s->anapal[PALETTE_R][i] << 4;
+            g = s->anapal[PALETTE_G][i] << 4;
+            b = s->anapal[PALETTE_B][i] << 4;
+            s->palette_gfx[i] = rgb_to_pixel(depth, r, g, b);
+        }
+    } else {
+        for (i = 0, j = 3; i < 4; i++, j--) {
+            r = (s->digipal[j] & 0x10) ? 0xff : 0;
+            g = (s->digipal[j] & 0x20) ? 0xff : 0;
+            b = (s->digipal[j] & 0x40) ? 0xff : 0;
+            s->palette_gfx[i] = rgb_to_pixel(depth, r, g, b);
+        }
+        for (i = 4, j = 3; i < 8; i++, j--) {
+            r = (s->digipal[j] & 0x01) ? 0xff : 0;
+            g = (s->digipal[j] & 0x02) ? 0xff : 0;
+            b = (s->digipal[j] & 0x04) ? 0xff : 0;
+            s->palette_gfx[i] = rgb_to_pixel(depth, r, g, b);
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void render_chr_screen(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int pl, bl, cl;
+    int sur, sdr;
+    uint32_t *addr, *addr2;
+    uint32_t cursor_addr;
+    int cursor_top, cursor_bottom;
+    int ytop, ysur, ysdr;
+    int l, x, y;
+    int xofs, addrofs;
+
+    pl = s->pl & 31;
+    if (pl) {
+        pl = 32 - pl;
+    }
+    bl = s->bl + 1;
+    cl = s->cl;
+    sur = s->sur & 31;
+    if (sur) {
+        sur = 32 - sur;
+    }
+    sdr = s->sdr + 1;
+
+    addr = gdc_get_address(&s->gdc_chr, 2, 0x1fff);
+    addr2 = addr + 160 * (sur + sdr);
+    gdc_get_cursor_address(&s->gdc_chr, 0x1fff,
+                           &cursor_addr, &cursor_top, &cursor_bottom);
+    ytop = 0;
+    ysur = bl * sur;
+    ysdr = bl * (sur + sdr);
+
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_COLUMN]) {
+        xofs = 16;
+        addrofs = 2;
+    } else {
+        xofs = 8;
+        addrofs = 1;
+    }
+    memset(s->tvram_buffer, 0, 640 * 480);
+
+    for (y = 0; y < 400; y += bl) {
+        uint32_t gaiji1st = 0, last = 0, offset;
+        int kanji2nd = 0;
+        if (y == ysur) {
+            ytop = y;
+            y -= s->ssl;
+            ysur = 400;
+        }
+        if (y >= ysdr) {
+            y = ytop = ysdr;
+            addr = addr2;
+            ysdr = 400;
+        }
+        for (x = 0; x < 640; x += xofs) {
+            uint16_t code = *(uint16_t *)(s->tvram + *addr);
+            uint8_t attr = s->tvram[*addr | 0x2000];
+            uint8_t color = (attr & ATTR_COL) ? (attr >> 5) : 8;
+            uint8_t cursor = (*addr == cursor_addr);
+            addr += addrofs;
+            if (kanji2nd) {
+                kanji2nd = 0;
+                offset = last + 0x800;
+            } else if (code & 0xff00) {
+                uint16_t lo = code & 0x7f;
+                uint16_t hi = (code >> 8) & 0x7f;
+                offset = (lo << 4) | (hi << 12);
+                if (lo == 0x56 || lo == 0x57) {
+                    offset += gaiji1st;
+                    gaiji1st ^= 0x800;
+                } else {
+                    uint16_t lo = code & 0xff;
+                    if (lo < 0x09 || lo >= 0x0c) {
+                        kanji2nd = 1;
+                    }
+                    gaiji1st = 0;
+                }
+            } else {
+                uint16_t lo = code & 0xff;
+                if (s->mode1[MODE1_FONTSEL]) {
+                    offset = 0x80000 | (lo << 4);
+                } else {
+                    offset = 0x82000 | (lo << 4);
+                }
+                gaiji1st = 0;
+            }
+            last = offset;
+            for(l = 0; l < cl && l < 16; l++) {
+                int yy = y + l + pl;
+                if(yy >= ytop && yy < 480) {
+                    uint8_t *dest = s->tvram_buffer + yy * 640 + x;
+                    uint8_t pattern = s->font[offset + l];
+                    if (!(attr & ATTR_ST)) {
+                        pattern = 0;
+                    } else if (((attr & ATTR_BL) && (s->blink & 0x20)) ||
+                               (attr & ATTR_RV)) {
+                        pattern = ~pattern;
+                    }
+                    if ((attr & ATTR_UL) && l == 15) {
+                        pattern = 0xff;
+                    }
+                    if (attr & ATTR_VL) {
+                        pattern |= 0x08;
+                    }
+                    if (cursor && l >= cursor_top && l < cursor_bottom) {
+                        pattern = ~pattern;
+                    }
+                    if (s->mode1[MODE1_COLUMN]) {
+                        if (pattern & 0x80) dest[ 0] = dest[ 1] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x40) dest[ 2] = dest[ 3] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x20) dest[ 4] = dest[ 5] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x10) dest[ 6] = dest[ 7] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x08) dest[ 8] = dest[ 9] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x04) dest[10] = dest[11] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x02) dest[12] = dest[13] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x01) dest[14] = dest[15] = color;
+                    } else {
+                        if (pattern & 0x80) dest[0] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x40) dest[1] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x20) dest[2] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x10) dest[3] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x08) dest[4] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x04) dest[5] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x02) dest[6] = color;
+                        if (pattern & 0x01) dest[7] = color;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void render_gfx_screen(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    uint8_t *dest;
+    int x, y;
+    uint8_t b, r, g, e = 0;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+        int addr = 0;
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_480LINE]) {
+            dest = s->vram0_buffer;
+            for(y = 0; y < 480; y++) {
+                for(x = 0; x < 640; x++) {
+                    *dest++ = s->vram256[addr++];
+                }
+            }
+        } else {
+            if (s->bank_disp == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+                dest = s->vram0_buffer;
+            } else {
+                dest = s->vram1_buffer;
+            }
+            for(y = 0; y < 400; y++) {
+                for(x = 0; x < 640; x++) {
+                    *dest++ = s->vram256_disp[addr++];
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    } else {
+        uint32_t *addr = gdc_get_address(&s->gdc_gfx, 1, 0x7fff);
+        if (s->bank_disp == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+            dest = s->vram0_buffer;
+        } else {
+            dest = s->vram1_buffer;
+        }
+        for(y = 0; y < 400; y++) {
+            for(x = 0; x < 640; x += 8) {
+                b = s->vram16_draw_b[*addr];
+                r = s->vram16_draw_r[*addr];
+                g = s->vram16_draw_g[*addr];
+                if (s->mode2[MODE2_16COLOR]) {
+                    e = s->vram16_draw_e[*addr];
+                }
+                addr++;
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x80) >> 7) | ((r & 0x80) >> 6) | ((g & 0x80) >> 5) | ((e & 0x80) >> 4);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x40) >> 6) | ((r & 0x40) >> 5) | ((g & 0x40) >> 4) | ((e & 0x40) >> 3);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x20) >> 5) | ((r & 0x20) >> 4) | ((g & 0x20) >> 3) | ((e & 0x20) >> 2);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x10) >> 4) | ((r & 0x10) >> 3) | ((g & 0x10) >> 2) | ((e & 0x10) >> 1);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x08) >> 3) | ((r & 0x08) >> 2) | ((g & 0x08) >> 1) | ((e & 0x08) >> 0);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x04) >> 2) | ((r & 0x04) >> 1) | ((g & 0x04) >> 0) | ((e & 0x04) << 1);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x02) >> 1) | ((r & 0x02) >> 0) | ((g & 0x02) << 1) | ((e & 0x02) << 2);
+                *dest++ = ((b & 0x01) >> 0) | ((r & 0x01) << 1) | ((g & 0x01) << 2) | ((e & 0x01) << 3);
+            }
+            if (s->mode1[MODE1_200LINE]) {
+                memset(dest, 0, 640);
+                dest += 640;
+                y++;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void update_display(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    /* cirrus vga */
+    if (s->prev_vga != s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        s->prev_vga = s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS];
+        /* force resize screen */
+        if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+            pc98_cirrus_vga_invalidate_display_size(s->cirrus_vga);
+        } else {
+            s->last_width = -1;
+            s->last_height = -1;
+        }
+    }
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vga_update_display(s->cirrus_vga);
+        return;
+    }
+
+    /* render screen */
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR] && s->mode2[MODE2_480LINE]) {
+        s->height = 480;
+    } else {
+        s->height = 400;
+    }
+#ifdef PC98_VGA_FORCE_REDRAW
+    s->dirty = 0xff;
+#endif
+    if (s->mode1[MODE1_DISP]) {
+        if (s->dirty & DIRTY_PALETTE) {
+            /* update palette */
+            update_palette(s);
+            s->dirty &= ~DIRTY_PALETTE;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+        }
+        if (s->gdc_chr.dirty & GDC_DIRTY_START) {
+            s->gdc_chr.dirty &= ~GDC_DIRTY_START;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+        }
+        if (s->gdc_chr.start) {
+            if ((s->gdc_chr.dirty & GDC_DIRTY_CHR) || (s->dirty & DIRTY_TVRAM)) {
+                /* update text screen */
+                render_chr_screen(s);
+                s->gdc_chr.dirty &= ~GDC_DIRTY_CHR;
+                s->dirty &= ~DIRTY_TVRAM;
+                s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+            }
+        }
+        if (s->gdc_gfx.dirty & GDC_DIRTY_START) {
+            s->gdc_gfx.dirty &= ~GDC_DIRTY_START;
+            s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+        }
+        if (s->gdc_gfx.start) {
+            uint8_t dirty = s->bank_disp;
+            if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+                if (s->mode2[MODE2_480LINE]) {
+                    dirty = DIRTY_VRAM0 | DIRTY_VRAM0;
+                }
+            }
+            if ((s->gdc_gfx.dirty & GDC_DIRTY_GFX) || (s->dirty & dirty)) {
+                /* update cg screen */
+                render_gfx_screen(s);
+                s->gdc_gfx.dirty &= ~GDC_DIRTY_GFX;
+                s->dirty &= ~dirty;
+                s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* resize screen */
+    if (s->width != s->last_width || s->height != s->last_height) {
+        s->last_width = s->width;
+        s->last_height = s->height;
+        qemu_console_resize(s->ds, s->width, s->height);
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+    }
+
+    /* update screen */
+    if (s->dirty & DIRTY_DISPLAY) {
+        int x, y;
+        int depth = ds_get_bits_per_pixel(s->ds);
+        int size = ds_get_linesize(s->ds);
+        uint8_t *dest1 = ds_get_data(s->ds);
+
+        if (s->mode1[MODE1_DISP]) {
+            /* output screen */
+            uint8_t *src_chr;
+            uint8_t *src_gfx;
+            if (!s->gdc_chr.start || s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR]) {
+                src_chr = s->null_buffer;
+            } else {
+                src_chr = s->tvram_buffer;
+            }
+            if (!s->gdc_gfx.start) {
+                src_gfx = s->null_buffer;
+            } else if (s->mode2[MODE2_256COLOR] && s->mode2[MODE2_480LINE]) {
+                src_gfx = s->vram0_buffer;
+            } else if (s->bank_disp == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+                src_gfx = s->vram0_buffer;
+            } else {
+                src_gfx = s->vram1_buffer;
+            }
+            for(y = 0; y < s->height; y++) {
+                uint8_t *dest = dest1;
+                switch(depth) {
+                case 8:
+                    for(x = 0; x < 640; x++) {
+                        if (*src_chr) {
+                            *((uint8_t *)dest) = s->palette_chr[*src_chr & 0x07];
+                        } else {
+                            *((uint8_t *)dest) = s->palette_gfx[*src_gfx];
+                        }
+                        src_chr++;
+                        src_gfx++;
+                        dest++;
+                    }
+                    break;
+                case 15:
+                case 16:
+                    for(x = 0; x < 640; x++) {
+                        if (*src_chr) {
+                            *((uint16_t *)dest) = s->palette_chr[*src_chr & 0x07];
+                        } else {
+                            *((uint16_t *)dest) = s->palette_gfx[*src_gfx];
+                        }
+                        src_chr++;
+                        src_gfx++;
+                        dest += 2;
+                    }
+                    break;
+                case 32:
+                    for(x = 0; x < 640; x++) {
+                        if (*src_chr) {
+                            *((uint32_t *)dest) = s->palette_chr[*src_chr & 0x07];
+                        } else {
+                            *((uint32_t *)dest) = s->palette_gfx[*src_gfx];
+                        }
+                        src_chr++;
+                        src_gfx++;
+                        dest += 4;
+                    }
+                    break;
+                }
+                dest1 += size;
+            }
+        } else {
+            for(y = 0; y < s->height; y++) {
+                memset(dest1, 0, size);
+                dest1 += size;
+            }
+        }
+        dpy_update(s->ds, 0, 0, s->width, s->height);
+        s->dirty &= ~DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+    }
+}
+
+static void invalidate_display(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    if (s->mode2[MODE2_CIRRUS]) {
+        pc98_cirrus_vga_invalidate_display(s->cirrus_vga);
+    } else {
+        s->dirty |= DIRTY_DISPLAY;
+    }
+}
+
+/* interface */
+
+static void pc98_vga_pre_save(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+
+    egc_pre_save(&s->egc);
+}
+
+static int pc98_vga_post_load(void *opaque, int version_id)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    gdc_post_load(&s->gdc_chr);
+    gdc_post_load(&s->gdc_gfx);
+    egc_post_load(&s->egc);
+
+    if (s->bank_draw == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+        s->vram16_draw_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+        s->vram16_draw_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+        s->vram16_draw_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+        s->vram16_draw_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+    } else {
+        s->vram16_draw_b = s->vram16 + 0x20000;
+        s->vram16_draw_r = s->vram16 + 0x28000;
+        s->vram16_draw_g = s->vram16 + 0x30000;
+        s->vram16_draw_e = s->vram16 + 0x38000;
+    }
+    if (s->bank_disp == DIRTY_VRAM0) {
+        s->vram16_disp_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+        s->vram16_disp_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+        s->vram16_disp_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+        s->vram16_disp_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+        s->vram256_disp = s->vram256 + 0x00000;
+    } else {
+        s->vram16_disp_b = s->vram16 + 0x20000;
+        s->vram16_disp_r = s->vram16 + 0x28000;
+        s->vram16_disp_g = s->vram16 + 0x30000;
+        s->vram16_disp_e = s->vram16 + 0x38000;
+        s->vram256_disp = s->vram256 + 0x40000;
+    }
+    if (s->vram256_bank_0 & 0x08) {
+        s->bank256_draw_0 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    } else {
+        s->bank256_draw_0 = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+    }
+    if (s->vram256_bank_1 & 0x08) {
+        s->bank256_draw_1 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    } else {
+        s->bank256_draw_1 = DIRTY_VRAM1;
+    }
+    s->vram256_draw_0 = s->vram256 + (s->vram256_bank_0 & 0x0f) * 0x8000;
+    s->vram256_draw_1 = s->vram256 + (s->vram256_bank_1 & 0x0f) * 0x8000;
+
+    egc_set_vram(&s->egc, s->vram16_draw_b);
+
+    for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
+        uint16_t tmp = s->grcg_tile_b[i];
+        s->grcg_tile_w[i] = tmp | (tmp << 8);
+    }
+
+    /* update gaiji */
+    for (i = 0; i < 512 * 64; i++) {
+        uint8_t font_code1 = ((i >> 6) & 0x100) ? 0x57 : 0x56;
+        uint8_t font_code2 = (i >> 6) & 0xff;
+        uint8_t font_line = i & 0x3f;
+
+        uint32_t code = (font_code2 << 8) | font_code1;
+        uint32_t lr = (~font_line & 0x20) << 6;
+        s->font[((code & 0x7f7f) << 4) + lr + (font_line & 0x0f)] = s->gaiji[i];
+    }
+
+    /* reset vsync timer */
+    s->vsync_clock = qemu_get_clock(rt_clock);
+    qemu_mod_timer(s->vsync_timer, s->vsync_clock + GDC_VTICKS);
+
+    /* force redraw */
+    s->dirty = 0xff;
+    s->prev_vga = -1;
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static const VMStateDescription vmstate_vga = {
+    .name = "pc98-vga",
+    .version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id = 1,
+    .minimum_version_id_old = 1,
+    .pre_save = pc98_vga_pre_save,
+    .post_load = pc98_vga_post_load,
+    .fields      = (VMStateField []) {
+        VMSTATE_STRUCT(gdc_chr, vga_t, 0, vmstate_gdc, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_STRUCT(gdc_gfx, vga_t, 0, vmstate_gdc, gdc_t),
+        VMSTATE_STRUCT(egc, vga_t, 0, vmstate_egc, egc_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(tvram, vga_t, TVRAM_SIZE),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(vram16, vga_t, VRAM16_SIZE),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(vram256, vga_t, VRAM256_SIZE),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(ems, vga_t, EMS_SIZE),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(width, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_INT32(height, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(grcg_mode, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(grcg_tile_cnt, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(grcg_tile_b, vga_t, 4),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(crtv, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(pl, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(bl, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(cl, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(ssl, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(sur, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(sdr, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(mode1, vga_t, 8),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(mode2, vga_t, 128),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(mode3, vga_t, 128),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(mode_select, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(digipal, vga_t, 4),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(anapal[0], vga_t, 256),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(anapal[1], vga_t, 256),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(anapal[2], vga_t, 256),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(anapal_select, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(bank_draw, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(bank_disp, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(vram256_bank_0, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT16(vram256_bank_1, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(ems_selected, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(swdip, vga_t, 24),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(swdip_bank, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(gaiji, vga_t, 512 * 64),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(font_code1, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(font_code2, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(font_line, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8(cirrus_regnum, vga_t),
+        VMSTATE_UINT8_ARRAY(cirrus_reg, vga_t, 256),
+        VMSTATE_END_OF_LIST()
+    }
+};
+
+static const uint8_t swdip_default[] = {
+    0x7c, 0x12, 0xf7, 0x3e, 0x7c, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xbf, 0x7f, 0x7f, 0x49, 0x98,
+    0x8f, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80,
+};
+static const uint8_t gaiji_default[] = {
+    0xc1, 0x8c, 0x81, 0xcd, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xaa, 0x55, 0x67,
+};
+static const uint8_t memsw_default[] = {
+    0xe1, 0x48, 0xe1, 0x05, 0xe1, 0x0c, 0xe1, 0x00,
+    0xe1, 0x01, 0xe1, 0x40, 0xe1, 0x00, 0xe1, 0x00,
+};
+
+static void pc98_vga_reset(void *opaque)
+{
+    vga_t *s = opaque;
+    int i;
+
+    s->bank_disp = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    s->bank_draw = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    s->bank256_draw_0 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+    s->bank256_draw_1 = DIRTY_VRAM0;
+
+    s->vram16_disp_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+    s->vram16_disp_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+    s->vram16_disp_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+    s->vram16_disp_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+    s->vram16_draw_b = s->vram16 + 0x00000;
+    s->vram16_draw_r = s->vram16 + 0x08000;
+    s->vram16_draw_g = s->vram16 + 0x10000;
+    s->vram16_draw_e = s->vram16 + 0x18000;
+
+    s->vram256_disp = s->vram256;
+    s->vram256_draw_0 = s->vram256;
+    s->vram256_draw_1 = s->vram256;
+
+    egc_set_vram(&s->egc, s->vram16_draw_b);
+
+    gdc_reset(&s->gdc_chr);
+    gdc_reset(&s->gdc_gfx);
+    egc_reset(&s->egc);
+
+    s->vsync_clock = qemu_get_clock(rt_clock);
+    qemu_mod_timer(s->vsync_timer, s->vsync_clock + GDC_VTICKS);
+    s->crtv = 1;
+
+    s->grcg_mode = 0;
+    s->pl = 0;
+    s->bl = 0x0f;
+    s->cl = 0x10;
+    s->ssl = 0;
+    s->sur = 0;
+    s->sdr = 24;
+
+    s->ems_selected = 0;
+
+    memset(s->mode1, 0, sizeof(s->mode1));
+    memset(s->mode2, 0, sizeof(s->mode2));
+    memset(s->mode3, 0, sizeof(s->mode3));
+    s->mode_select = 0;
+
+    memcpy(s->swdip, swdip_default, 24);
+    s->swdip_bank = 0;
+
+    memset(s->gaiji, 0, 512 * 64);
+    for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
+        s->gaiji[32 * 64 + (i + 1)] = gaiji_default[i];
+    }
+    s->font_code1 = 0;
+    s->font_code2 = 0;
+    s->font_line = 0;
+
+    for(i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
+        s->tvram[0x3fe0 + (i << 1)] = memsw_default[i];
+    }
+
+    /* reset palette */
+    for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_B][i] = (i & 1) ? 0x07 : 0;
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_R][i] = (i & 2) ? 0x07 : 0;
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_G][i] = (i & 4) ? 0x07 : 0;
+    }
+    for (i = 8; i < 16; i++) {
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_B][i] = (i & 1) ? 0x0f : 0;
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_R][i] = (i & 2) ? 0x0f : 0;
+        s->anapal[PALETTE_G][i] = (i & 4) ? 0x0f : 0;
+    }
+    s->anapal_select = 0;
+
+    /* reset cirrus vga */
+    s->cirrus_regnum = 0;
+    memset(s->cirrus_reg, 0, sizeof(s->cirrus_reg));
+
+    /* force redraw */
+    s->dirty = 0xff;
+    s->prev_vga = -1;
+    s->blink = 0;
+
+    s->width = 640;
+    s->height = 400;
+}
+
+static void kanji_copy(uint8_t *dst, uint8_t *src, int from, int to)
+{
+    int i, j, k;
+    uint8_t *p, *q;
+
+    for(i = from; i < to; i++) {
+        p = src + 0x1800 + (0x60 * 32 * (i - 1));
+        q = dst + 0x20000 + (i << 4);
+        for(j = 0x20; j < 0x80; j++) {
+            for(k = 0; k < 16; k++) {
+                *(q + 0x800) = *(p + 16);
+                *q++ = *p++;
+            }
+            p += 16;
+            q += 0x1000 - 16;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static CPUReadMemoryFunc *tvram_read[] = {
+    &tvram_readb,
+    &tvram_readw,
+    &tvram_readl,
+};
+static CPUWriteMemoryFunc *tvram_write[] = {
+    &tvram_writeb,
+    &tvram_writew,
+    &tvram_writel,
+};
+static CPUReadMemoryFunc *vram_a8000_read[] = {
+    &vram_readb,
+    &vram_readw,
+    &vram_readl,
+};
+static CPUWriteMemoryFunc *vram_a8000_write[] = {
+    &vram_writeb,
+    &vram_writew,
+    &vram_writel,
+};
+static CPUReadMemoryFunc *vram_b0000_read[] = {
+    &vram_b0000_readb,
+    &vram_b0000_readw,
+    &vram_b0000_readl,
+};
+static CPUWriteMemoryFunc *vram_b0000_write[] = {
+    &vram_b0000_writeb,
+    &vram_b0000_writew,
+    &vram_b0000_writel,
+};
+static CPUReadMemoryFunc *vram_e0000_read[] = {
+    &vram_e0000_readb,
+    &vram_e0000_readw,
+    &vram_e0000_readl,
+};
+static CPUWriteMemoryFunc *vram_e0000_write[] = {
+    &vram_e0000_writeb,
+    &vram_e0000_writew,
+    &vram_e0000_writel,
+};
+static CPUReadMemoryFunc *vram_f00000_read[] = {
+    &vram_f00000_readb,
+    &vram_f00000_readw,
+    &vram_f00000_readl,
+};
+static CPUWriteMemoryFunc *vram_f00000_write[] = {
+    &vram_f00000_writeb,
+    &vram_f00000_writew,
+    &vram_f00000_writel,
+};
+#define FONT_FILE_NAME "pc98font.bin"
+#define FONT_FILE_SIZE 0x46800
+
+static int pc98_vga_initfn(ISADevice *dev)
+{
+    vga_isabus_t *isa = DO_UPCAST(vga_isabus_t, dev, dev);
+    vga_t *s = &isa->state;
+
+    char *filename;
+    uint8_t *buf;
+    uint8_t *p, *q;
+    int tvram_io_memory;
+    int vram_a8000_io_memory;
+    int vram_b0000_io_memory;
+    int vram_e0000_io_memory;
+    int vram_f00000_io_memory;
+    int i, j;
+
+    /* font */
+    p = s->font + 0x81000;
+    q = s->font + 0x82000;
+    for(i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
+        q += 8;
+        for(j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
+            uint32_t bit = 0;
+            if (i & (1 << j))
+                bit |= 0xf0f0f0f0;
+            if (i & (0x10 << j))
+                bit |= 0x0f0f0f0f;
+            *(uint32_t *)p = bit;
+            p += 4;
+            *(uint16_t *)q = (uint16_t)bit;
+            q += 2;
+        }
+    }
+    for(i = 0; i < 0x80; i++) {
+        q = s->font + (i << 12);
+        memset(q + 0x000, 0, 0x0560 - 0x000);
+        memset(q + 0x580, 0, 0x0d60 - 0x580);
+        memset(q + 0xd80, 0, 0x1000 - 0xd80);
+    }
+    filename = qemu_find_file(QEMU_FILE_TYPE_BIOS, FONT_FILE_NAME);
+    if (filename) {
+        buf = qemu_malloc(FONT_FILE_SIZE);
+        if (load_image(filename, buf) == FONT_FILE_SIZE) {
+            /* 8x8 font */
+            uint8_t *dst = s->font + 0x82000;
+            uint8_t *src = buf;
+            int cnt = 256;
+            while(cnt--) {
+                memcpy(dst, src, 8);
+                dst += 16;
+                src += 8;
+            }
+            /* 8x16 font */
+            memcpy(s->font + 0x80000, buf + 0x0800, 16 * 128);
+            memcpy(s->font + 0x80800, buf + 0x1000, 16 * 128);
+            /* kanji font */
+            kanji_copy(s->font, buf, 0x01, 0x30);
+            kanji_copy(s->font, buf, 0x30, 0x56);
+            kanji_copy(s->font, buf, 0x58, 0x5d);
+        }
+        qemu_free(buf);
+        qemu_free(filename);
+    }
+
+    /* gdc */
+    gdc_init(&s->gdc_chr, s, gdc_tvram_read, gdc_tvram_write);
+    gdc_init(&s->gdc_gfx, s, gdc_vram_read, gdc_vram_write);
+    egc_init(&s->egc, s);
+
+    /* register */
+    register_ioport_write(0x60, 1, 1, gdc_param_write, &s->gdc_chr);
+    register_ioport_read(0x60, 1, 1, gdc_statreg_read, &s->gdc_chr);
+    register_ioport_write(0x62, 1, 1, gdc_cmdreg_write, &s->gdc_chr);
+    register_ioport_read(0x62, 1, 1, gdc_data_read, &s->gdc_chr);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x64, 1, 1, vsync_write, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x68, 1, 1, mode_flipflop1_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0x68, 1, 1, mode_flipflop1_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x6a, 1, 1, mode_flipflop2_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0x6a, 1, 1, mode_flipflop2_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x6e, 1, 1, mode_flipflop3_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0x6e, 1, 1, mode_flipflop3_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x70, 1, 1, crtc_pl_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x72, 1, 1, crtc_bl_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x74, 1, 1, crtc_cl_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x76, 1, 1, crtc_ssl_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x78, 1, 1, crtc_sur_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x7a, 1, 1, crtc_sdr_write, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x7c, 1, 1, grcg_mode_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0x7e, 1, 1, grcg_tile_write, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0xa0, 1, 1, gdc_param_write, &s->gdc_gfx);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa0, 1, 1, gdc_statreg_read, &s->gdc_gfx);
+    register_ioport_write(0xa2, 1, 1, gdc_cmdreg_write, &s->gdc_gfx);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa2, 1, 1, gdc_data_read, &s->gdc_gfx);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0xa1, 1, 1, cgwindow_code2_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xa3, 1, 1, cgwindow_code1_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xa5, 1, 1, cgwindow_line_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xa9, 1, 1, cgwindow_pattern_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa9, 1, 1, cgwindow_pattern_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0xa4, 1, 1, vram_disp_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa4, 1, 1, vram_disp_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xa6, 1, 1, vram_draw_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa6, 1, 1, vram_draw_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0xa8, 1, 1, palette_a8_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xa8, 1, 1, palette_a8_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xaa, 1, 1, palette_aa_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xaa, 1, 1, palette_aa_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xac, 1, 1, palette_ac_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xac, 1, 1, palette_ac_read, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xae, 1, 1, palette_ae_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xae, 1, 1, palette_ae_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x43f, 1, 1, ems_select_write, s);
+
+    for(i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
+        register_ioport_write(0x4a0 + i, 1, 1, egc_ioport_writeb, &s->egc);
+    }
+    for(i = 0; i < 16; i += 2) {
+        register_ioport_write(0x4a0 + i, 2, 2, egc_ioport_writew, &s->egc);
+    }
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x9a0, 1, 1, mode_select_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0x9a0, 1, 1, mode_status_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0x9a8, 1, 1, horiz_freq_write, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0x9a8, 1, 1, horiz_freq_read, s);
+
+    register_ioport_write(0xfaa, 1, 1, cirrus_regnum_writeb, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xfaa, 1, 1, cirrus_regnum_readb, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xfab, 1, 1, cirrus_reg_writeb, s);
+    register_ioport_read(0xfab, 1, 1, cirrus_reg_readb, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xfaa, 2, 2, cirrus_reg_writew, s);
+
+    for (i = 0; i < 12; i++) {
+        register_ioport_write(0x841e + i * 0x100, 1, 1, swdip_data_write, s);
+        register_ioport_read(0x841e + i * 0x100, 1, 1, swdip_data_read, s);
+    }
+    register_ioport_write(0x8f1f, 1, 1, swdip_bank_write, s);
+    register_ioport_write(0xf0f6, 1, 1, swdip_bank_write, s);
+
+    tvram_io_memory = cpu_register_io_memory(tvram_read, tvram_write, s);
+    vram_a8000_io_memory = cpu_register_io_memory(vram_a8000_read, vram_a8000_write, s);
+    vram_b0000_io_memory = cpu_register_io_memory(vram_b0000_read, vram_b0000_write, s);
+    vram_e0000_io_memory = cpu_register_io_memory(vram_e0000_read, vram_e0000_write, s);
+    vram_f00000_io_memory = cpu_register_io_memory(vram_f00000_read, vram_f00000_write, s);
+
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x000a0000, 0x08000, tvram_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x000a8000, 0x08000, vram_a8000_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x000b0000, 0x10000, vram_b0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0x000a0000, 0x20000);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x000e0000, 0x08000, vram_e0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0x000e0000, 0x08000);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x00f00000, 0xa0000, vram_f00000_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x00fa0000, 0x08000, tvram_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x00fa8000, 0x08000, vram_a8000_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x00fb0000, 0x10000, vram_b0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0x00fa0000, 0x20000);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0x00fe0000, 0x08000, vram_e0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0x00fe0000, 0x08000);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0xfff00000, 0xa0000, vram_f00000_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0xfffa0000, 0x08000, tvram_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0xfffa8000, 0x08000, vram_a8000_io_memory);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0xfffb0000, 0x10000, vram_b0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0xfffa0000, 0x20000);
+    cpu_register_physical_memory(isa_mem_base + 0xfffe0000, 0x08000, vram_e0000_io_memory);
+    qemu_register_coalesced_mmio(isa_mem_base + 0xfffe0000, 0x08000);
+
+    isa_init_irq(dev, &s->irq, isa->isairq);
+
+    s->vsync_timer = qemu_new_timer(rt_clock, vsync_timer_handler, s);
+
+    vmstate_register(0, &vmstate_vga, s);
+    pc98_vga_reset(s);
+    qemu_register_reset(pc98_vga_reset, s);
+
+    s->ds = graphic_console_init(update_display, invalidate_display,
+                                 NULL, NULL, s);
+
+    s->cirrus_vga = pc98_cirrus_vga_init(s->ds);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+void pc98_vga_init(void)
+{
+    ISADevice *dev;
+
+    dev = isa_create("pc98-vga");
+    qdev_init_nofail(&dev->qdev);
+}
+
+static ISADeviceInfo pc98_vga_info = {
+    .qdev.name  = "pc98-vga",
+    .qdev.size  = sizeof(vga_isabus_t),
+    .init       = pc98_vga_initfn,
+    .qdev.props = (Property[]) {
+        DEFINE_PROP_UINT32("irq", vga_isabus_t, isairq, 2),
+        DEFINE_PROP_END_OF_LIST(),
+    },
+};
+
+static void pc98_vga_register_devices(void)
+{
+    isa_qdev_register(&pc98_vga_info);
+}
+
+device_init(pc98_vga_register_devices)