Patchwork [RFC,v4+,hot_track,19/19] vfs: add documentation

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Submitter Zhiyong Wu
Date Oct. 29, 2012, 4:31 a.m.
Message ID <1351485061-12297-20-git-send-email-zwu.kernel@gmail.com>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/194792/
State Not Applicable
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Zhiyong Wu - Oct. 29, 2012, 4:31 a.m.
From: Zhi Yong Wu <wuzhy@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

  Add one doc for VFS hot tracking feature

Signed-off-by: Zhi Yong Wu <wuzhy@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX         |    2 +
 Documentation/filesystems/hot_tracking.txt |  262 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 264 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/hot_tracking.txt

Patch

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX b/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
index 8c624a1..b68bdff 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/00-INDEX
@@ -118,3 +118,5 @@  xfs.txt
 	- info and mount options for the XFS filesystem.
 xip.txt
 	- info on execute-in-place for file mappings.
+hot_tracking.txt
+	- info on hot data tracking in VFS layer
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/hot_tracking.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/hot_tracking.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a39a96d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/hot_tracking.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,262 @@ 
+Hot Data Tracking
+
+September, 2012		Zhi Yong Wu <wuzhy@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+
+CONTENTS
+
+1. Introduction
+2. Motivation
+3. The Design
+4. How to Calc Frequency of Reads/Writes & Temperature
+5. Git Development Tree
+6. Usage Example
+
+
+1. Introduction
+
+  The feature adds experimental support for tracking data temperature
+information in VFS layer.  Essentially, this means maintaining some key
+stats(like number of reads/writes, last read/write time, frequency of
+reads/writes), then distilling those numbers down to a single
+"temperature" value that reflects what data is "hot," and using that
+temperature to move data to SSDs.
+
+  The long-term goal of the feature is to allow some FSs,
+e.g. Btrfs to intelligently utilize SSDs in a heterogenous volume.
+Incidentally, this project has been motivated by
+the Project Ideas page on the Btrfs wiki.
+
+  Of course, users are warned not to run this code outside of development
+environments. These patches are EXPERIMENTAL, and as such they might eat
+your data and/or memory. That said, the code should be relatively safe
+when the hottrack mount option are disabled.
+
+2. Motivation
+
+  The overall goal of enabling hot data relocation to SSD has been
+motivated by the Project Ideas page on the Btrfs wiki at
+<https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Project_ideas>.
+It will divide into two steps. VFS provide hot data tracking function
+while specific FS will provide hot data relocation function.
+So as the first step of this goal, it is hoped that the patchset
+for hot data tracking will eventually mature into VFS.
+
+  This is essentially the traditional cache argument: SSD is fast and
+expensive; HDD is cheap but slow. ZFS, for example, can already take
+advantage of SSD caching. Btrfs should also be able to take advantage of
+hybrid storage without many broad, sweeping changes to existing code.
+
+
+3. The Design
+
+These include the following parts:
+
+    * Hooks in existing vfs functions to track data access frequency
+
+    * New radix-trees for tracking access frequency of inodes and sub-file
+ranges
+    The relationship between super_block and radix-tree is as below:
+hot_info.hot_inode_tree
+    Each FS instance can find hot tracking info s_hotinfo.
+In this hot_info, it store a lot of hot tracking info such as hot_inode_tree,
+inode and range list, etc.
+
+    * A list for indexing data by its temperature
+
+    * A debugfs interface for dumping data from the radix-trees
+
+    * A background kthread for updating inode heat info
+
+    * Mount options for enabling temperature tracking(-o hot_track,
+default mean disabled)
+    * An ioctl to retrieve the frequency information collected for a certain
+file
+    * Ioctls to enable/disable frequency tracking per inode.
+
+Let us see their relationship as below:
+
+    * hot_info.hot_inode_tree indexes hot_inode_items, one per inode
+
+    * hot_inode_item contains access frequency data for that inode
+
+    * hot_inode_item holds a heat list node to index the access
+frequency data for that inode
+
+    * hot_inode_item.hot_range_tree indexes hot_range_items for that inode
+
+    * hot_range_item contains access frequency data for that range
+
+    * hot_range_item holds a heat list node to index the access
+frequency data for that range
+
+    * hot_info.heat_inode_map indexes per-inode heat list nodes
+
+    * hot_info.heat_range_map indexes per-range heat list nodes
+
+  How about some ascii art? :) Just looking at the hot inode item case
+(the range item case is the same pattern, though), we have:
+
+heat_inode_map           hot_inode_tree
+    |                         |
+    |                         V
+    |           +-------hot_comm_item--------+
+    |           |       frequency data       |
++---+           |        list_head           |
+|               V            ^ |             V
+| ...<--hot_comm_item-->...  | |  ...<--hot_comm_item-->...
+|       frequency data       | |        frequency data
++-------->list_head----------+ +--------->list_head--->.....
+       hot_range_tree                  hot_range_tree
+                                             |
+             heat_range_map                  V
+                   |           +-------hot_comm_item--------+
+                   |           |       frequency data       |
+               +---+           |        list_head           |
+               |               V            ^ |             V
+               | ...<--hot_comm_item-->...  | |  ...<--hot_comm_item-->...
+               |       frequency data       | |        frequency data
+               +-------->list_head----------+ +--------->list_head--->.....
+
+
+4. How to Calc Frequency of Reads/Writes & Temperature
+
+1.) hot_average_update()
+
+  This function does the actual work of updating the frequency numbers,
+whatever they turn out to be. FREQ_POWER determines how many atime
+deltas we keep track of (as a power of 2). So, setting it to anything above
+16ish is probably overkill. Also, the higher the power, the more bits get
+right shifted out of the timestamp, reducing precision, so take note of that
+as well.
+
+  The caller should have already locked freq_data's parent's spinlock.
+
+  FREQ_POWER, defined immediately below, determines how heavily to weight
+the current frequency numbers against the newest access. For example, a value
+of 4 means that the new access information will be weighted 1/16th (ie 2^-4)
+as heavily as the existing frequency info. In essence, this is a kludged-
+together version of a weighted average, since we can't afford to keep all of
+the information that it would take to get a _real_ weighted average.
+
+2.) Some Micro explaination
+
+  The following comments explain what exactly comprises a unit of heat.
+Each of six values of heat are calculated and combined in order to form an
+overall temperature for the data:
+
+    * NRR - number of reads since mount
+    * NRW - number of writes since mount
+    * LTR - time elapsed since last read (ns)
+    * LTW - time elapsed since last write (ns)
+    * AVR - average delta between recent reads (ns)
+    * AVW - average delta between recent writes (ns)
+
+  These values are divided (right-shifted) according to the *_DIVIDER_POWER
+values defined below to bring the numbers into a reasonable range. You can
+modify these values to fit your needs. However, each heat unit is a u32 and
+thus maxes out at 2^32 - 1. Therefore, you must choose your dividers quite
+carefully or else they could max out or be stuck at zero quite easily.
+(E.g., if you chose AVR_DIVIDER_POWER = 0, nothing less than 4s of atime
+delta would bring the temperature above zero, ever.)
+
+  Finally, each value is added to the overall temperature between 0 and 8
+times, depending on its *_COEFF_POWER value. Note that the coefficients are
+also actually implemented with shifts, so take care to treat these values
+as powers of 2. (I.e., 0 means we'll add it to the temp once; 1 = 2x, etc.)
+
+    * AVR/AVW cold unit = 2^X ns of average delta
+    * AVR/AVW heat unit = HEAT_MAX_VALUE - cold unit
+
+  E.g., data with an average delta between 0 and 2^X ns will have a cold
+value of 0, which means a heat value equal to HEAT_MAX_VALUE.
+
+3.) hot_temp_calc()
+
+  This function is responsible for distilling the six heat
+criteria, which are described in detail in hot_tracking.h) down into a single
+temperature value for the data, which is an integer between 0
+and HEAT_MAX_VALUE.
+
+  To accomplish this, the raw values from the hot_freq_data structure
+are shifted various ways in order to make the temperature calculation more
+or less sensitive to each value.
+
+  Once this calibration has happened, we do some additional normalization and
+make sure that everything fits nicely in a u32. From there, we take a very
+rudimentary kind of "average" of each of the values, where the *_COEFF_POWER
+values act as weights for the average.
+
+  Finally, we use the HEAT_HASH_BITS value, which determines the size of the
+heat list array, to normalize the temperature to the proper granularity.
+
+
+5. Git Development Tree
+
+  This feature is still on development and review, so if you're interested,
+you can pull from the git repository at the following location:
+
+  https://github.com/wuzhy/kernel.git hot_tracking
+  git://github.com/wuzhy/kernel.git hot_tracking
+
+
+6. Usage Example
+
+1.) To use hot tracking, you should mount like this:
+
+$ mount -o hot_track /dev/sdb /mnt
+[ 1505.894078] device label test devid 1 transid 29 /dev/sdb
+[ 1505.952977] btrfs: disk space caching is enabled
+[ 1506.069678] vfs: turning on hot data tracking
+
+2.) Mount debugfs at first:
+
+$ mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
+$ ls -l /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/
+total 0
+drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Aug  8 04:40 sdb
+$ ls -l /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/sdb
+total 0
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug  8 04:40 rt_stats_inode
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Aug  8 04:40 rt_stats_range
+
+3.) View information about hot tracking from debugfs:
+
+$ echo "hot tracking test" > /mnt/file
+$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/sdb/rt_stats_inode
+inode #279, reads 0, writes 1, avg read time 18446744073709551615,
+avg write time 5251566408153596, temp 109
+$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/sdb/range_data
+inode #279, range start 0 (range len 1048576) reads 0, writes 1,
+avg read time 18446744073709551615, avg write time 1128690176623144209, temp 64
+
+$ echo "hot data tracking test" >> /mnt/file
+$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/sdb/rt_stats_inode
+inode #279, reads 0, writes 2, avg read time 18446744073709551615,
+avg write time 4923343766042451, temp 109
+$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/sdb/range_data
+inode #279, range start 0 (range len 1048576) reads 0, writes 2,
+avg read time 18446744073709551615, avg write time 1058147040842596150, temp 64
+
+4.) Check temp sorting result of some nodes:
+
+$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/hot_track/loop0/hot_spots_inode
+inode #5248773, reads 0, writes 244,
+avg read time 18446744073709, avg write time 822, temp 111
+inode #878523, reads 0, writes 1,
+avg read time 18446744073709, avg write time 5278036898, temp 109
+inode #878524, reads 0, writes 1,
+avg read time 18446744073709, avg write time 5278036898, temp 109
+
+5.) Tune some hot tracking parameters as below:
+
+$ cat /proc/sys/fs/hot-kick-time
+300
+$ echo 360 > /proc/sys/fs/hot-kick-time
+$ cat /proc/sys/fs/hot-kick-time
+360
+$ cat /proc/sys/fs/hot-update-delay
+300
+$ echo 360 > /proc/sys/fs/hot-update-delay
+$ cat /proc/sys/fs/hot-update-delay
+360
+