Patchwork [V11,6/8] Introduce Xen PCI Passthrough, PCI config space helpers (2/3)

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Submitter Anthony PERARD
Date April 3, 2012, 3:32 p.m.
Message ID <1333467163-25795-7-git-send-email-anthony.perard@citrix.com>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/150474/
State New
Headers show

Comments

Anthony PERARD - April 3, 2012, 3:32 p.m.
From: Allen Kay <allen.m.kay@intel.com>

A more complete history can be found here:
git://xenbits.xensource.com/qemu-xen-unstable.git

Signed-off-by: Allen Kay <allen.m.kay@intel.com>
Signed-off-by: Guy Zana <guy@neocleus.com>
Signed-off-by: Anthony PERARD <anthony.perard@citrix.com>
Acked-by: Stefano Stabellini <stefano.stabellini@eu.citrix.com>
---
 hw/xen_pt.c             |   10 +
 hw/xen_pt.h             |    2 +
 hw/xen_pt_config_init.c | 1387 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 1399 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

Patch

diff --git a/hw/xen_pt.c b/hw/xen_pt.c
index afa985a..c2e211a 100644
--- a/hw/xen_pt.c
+++ b/hw/xen_pt.c
@@ -676,6 +676,13 @@  static int xen_pt_initfn(PCIDevice *d)
     /* Handle real device's MMIO/PIO BARs */
     xen_pt_register_regions(s);
 
+    /* reinitialize each config register to be emulated */
+    if (xen_pt_config_init(s)) {
+        XEN_PT_ERR(d, "PCI Config space initialisation failed.\n");
+        xen_host_pci_device_put(&s->real_device);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
     /* Bind interrupt */
     if (!s->dev.config[PCI_INTERRUPT_PIN]) {
         XEN_PT_LOG(d, "no pin interrupt\n");
@@ -774,6 +781,9 @@  static int xen_pt_unregister_device(PCIDevice *d)
         }
     }
 
+    /* delete all emulated config registers */
+    xen_pt_config_delete(s);
+
     xen_pt_unregister_regions(s);
     memory_listener_unregister(&s->memory_listener);
 
diff --git a/hw/xen_pt.h b/hw/xen_pt.h
index f029841..4bb8cb6 100644
--- a/hw/xen_pt.h
+++ b/hw/xen_pt.h
@@ -62,6 +62,8 @@  typedef int (*xen_pt_conf_byte_read)
 #define XEN_PT_BAR_ALLF 0xFFFFFFFF
 #define XEN_PT_BAR_UNMAPPED (-1)
 
+#define PCI_CAP_MAX 48
+
 
 typedef enum {
     XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED = 0,  /* 0 Hardwired reg group */
diff --git a/hw/xen_pt_config_init.c b/hw/xen_pt_config_init.c
index 64d22e8..1d97876 100644
--- a/hw/xen_pt_config_init.c
+++ b/hw/xen_pt_config_init.c
@@ -1,11 +1,1398 @@ 
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2007, Neocleus Corporation.
+ * Copyright (c) 2007, Intel Corporation.
+ *
+ * This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2.  See
+ * the COPYING file in the top-level directory.
+ *
+ * Alex Novik <alex@neocleus.com>
+ * Allen Kay <allen.m.kay@intel.com>
+ * Guy Zana <guy@neocleus.com>
+ *
+ * This file implements direct PCI assignment to a HVM guest
+ */
+
+#include "qemu-timer.h"
+#include "xen_backend.h"
 #include "xen_pt.h"
 
+#define XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(value, data, val_mask) \
+    (((value) & (val_mask)) | ((data) & ~(val_mask)))
+
+#define XEN_PT_INVALID_REG          0xFFFFFFFF      /* invalid register value */
+
+/* prototype */
+
+static int xen_pt_ptr_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTRegInfo *reg,
+                               uint32_t real_offset, uint32_t *data);
+
+
+/* helper */
+
+/* A return value of 1 means the capability should NOT be exposed to guest. */
+static int xen_pt_hide_dev_cap(const XenHostPCIDevice *d, uint8_t grp_id)
+{
+    switch (grp_id) {
+    case PCI_CAP_ID_EXP:
+        /* The PCI Express Capability Structure of the VF of Intel 82599 10GbE
+         * Controller looks trivial, e.g., the PCI Express Capabilities
+         * Register is 0. We should not try to expose it to guest.
+         *
+         * The datasheet is available at
+         * http://download.intel.com/design/network/datashts/82599_datasheet.pdf
+         *
+         * See 'Table 9.7. VF PCIe Configuration Space' of the datasheet, the
+         * PCI Express Capability Structure of the VF of Intel 82599 10GbE
+         * Controller looks trivial, e.g., the PCI Express Capabilities
+         * Register is 0, so the Capability Version is 0 and
+         * xen_pt_pcie_size_init() would fail.
+         */
+        if (d->vendor_id == PCI_VENDOR_ID_INTEL &&
+            d->device_id == PCI_DEVICE_ID_INTEL_82599_SFP_VF) {
+            return 1;
+        }
+        break;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/*   find emulate register group entry */
 XenPTRegGroup *xen_pt_find_reg_grp(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, uint32_t address)
 {
+    XenPTRegGroup *entry = NULL;
+
+    /* find register group entry */
+    QLIST_FOREACH(entry, &s->reg_grps, entries) {
+        /* check address */
+        if ((entry->base_offset <= address)
+            && ((entry->base_offset + entry->size) > address)) {
+            return entry;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* group entry not found */
     return NULL;
 }
 
+/* find emulate register entry */
 XenPTReg *xen_pt_find_reg(XenPTRegGroup *reg_grp, uint32_t address)
 {
+    XenPTReg *reg_entry = NULL;
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = NULL;
+    uint32_t real_offset = 0;
+
+    /* find register entry */
+    QLIST_FOREACH(reg_entry, &reg_grp->reg_tbl_list, entries) {
+        reg = reg_entry->reg;
+        real_offset = reg_grp->base_offset + reg->offset;
+        /* check address */
+        if ((real_offset <= address)
+            && ((real_offset + reg->size) > address)) {
+            return reg_entry;
+        }
+    }
+
     return NULL;
 }
+
+
+/****************
+ * general register functions
+ */
+
+/* register initialization function */
+
+static int xen_pt_common_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                  uint32_t *data)
+{
+    *data = reg->init_val;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Read register functions */
+
+static int xen_pt_byte_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                uint8_t *value, uint8_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint8_t valid_emu_mask = 0;
+
+    /* emulate byte register */
+    valid_emu_mask = reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_word_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                uint16_t *value, uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t valid_emu_mask = 0;
+
+    /* emulate word register */
+    valid_emu_mask = reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_long_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                uint32_t *value, uint32_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint32_t valid_emu_mask = 0;
+
+    /* emulate long register */
+    valid_emu_mask = reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Write register functions */
+
+static int xen_pt_byte_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                 uint8_t *val, uint8_t dev_value,
+                                 uint8_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint8_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint8_t throughable_mask = 0;
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = reg->emu_mask & ~reg->ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_word_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                 uint16_t *val, uint16_t dev_value,
+                                 uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint16_t throughable_mask = 0;
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = reg->emu_mask & ~reg->ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_long_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                 uint32_t *val, uint32_t dev_value,
+                                 uint32_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint32_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t throughable_mask = 0;
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = reg->emu_mask & ~reg->ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~reg->emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+
+/* XenPTRegInfo declaration
+ * - only for emulated register (either a part or whole bit).
+ * - for passthrough register that need special behavior (like interacting with
+ *   other component), set emu_mask to all 0 and specify r/w func properly.
+ * - do NOT use ALL F for init_val, otherwise the tbl will not be registered.
+ */
+
+/********************
+ * Header Type0
+ */
+
+static int xen_pt_vendor_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                  uint32_t *data)
+{
+    *data = s->real_device.vendor_id;
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_device_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                  uint32_t *data)
+{
+    *data = s->real_device.device_id;
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_status_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                  uint32_t *data)
+{
+    XenPTRegGroup *reg_grp_entry = NULL;
+    XenPTReg *reg_entry = NULL;
+    uint32_t reg_field = 0;
+
+    /* find Header register group */
+    reg_grp_entry = xen_pt_find_reg_grp(s, PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST);
+    if (reg_grp_entry) {
+        /* find Capabilities Pointer register */
+        reg_entry = xen_pt_find_reg(reg_grp_entry, PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST);
+        if (reg_entry) {
+            /* check Capabilities Pointer register */
+            if (reg_entry->data) {
+                reg_field |= PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST;
+            } else {
+                reg_field &= ~PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST;
+            }
+        } else {
+            xen_shutdown_fatal_error("Internal error: Couldn't find XenPTReg*"
+                                     " for Capabilities Pointer register."
+                                     " (%s)\n", __func__);
+            return -1;
+        }
+    } else {
+        xen_shutdown_fatal_error("Internal error: Couldn't find XenPTRegGroup"
+                                 " for Header. (%s)\n", __func__);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    *data = reg_field;
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_header_type_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                       XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                       uint32_t *data)
+{
+    /* read PCI_HEADER_TYPE */
+    *data = reg->init_val | 0x80;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* initialize Interrupt Pin register */
+static int xen_pt_irqpin_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                  uint32_t *data)
+{
+    *data = xen_pt_pci_read_intx(s);
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Command register */
+static int xen_pt_cmd_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                               uint16_t *value, uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t valid_emu_mask = 0;
+    uint16_t emu_mask = reg->emu_mask;
+
+    if (s->is_virtfn) {
+        emu_mask |= PCI_COMMAND_MEMORY;
+    }
+
+    /* emulate word register */
+    valid_emu_mask = emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_cmd_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                uint16_t *val, uint16_t dev_value,
+                                uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint16_t throughable_mask = 0;
+    uint16_t emu_mask = reg->emu_mask;
+
+    if (s->is_virtfn) {
+        emu_mask |= PCI_COMMAND_MEMORY;
+    }
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = ~reg->ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~emu_mask & valid_mask;
+
+    if (*val & PCI_COMMAND_INTX_DISABLE) {
+        throughable_mask |= PCI_COMMAND_INTX_DISABLE;
+    } else {
+        if (s->machine_irq) {
+            throughable_mask |= PCI_COMMAND_INTX_DISABLE;
+        }
+    }
+
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* BAR */
+#define XEN_PT_BAR_MEM_RO_MASK    0x0000000F  /* BAR ReadOnly mask(Memory) */
+#define XEN_PT_BAR_MEM_EMU_MASK   0xFFFFFFF0  /* BAR emul mask(Memory) */
+#define XEN_PT_BAR_IO_RO_MASK     0x00000003  /* BAR ReadOnly mask(I/O) */
+#define XEN_PT_BAR_IO_EMU_MASK    0xFFFFFFFC  /* BAR emul mask(I/O) */
+
+static XenPTBarFlag xen_pt_bar_reg_parse(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                         XenPTRegInfo *reg)
+{
+    PCIDevice *d = &s->dev;
+    XenPTRegion *region = NULL;
+    PCIIORegion *r;
+    int index = 0;
+
+    /* check 64bit BAR */
+    index = xen_pt_bar_offset_to_index(reg->offset);
+    if ((0 < index) && (index < PCI_ROM_SLOT)) {
+        int type = s->real_device.io_regions[index - 1].type;
+
+        if ((type & XEN_HOST_PCI_REGION_TYPE_MEM)
+            && (type & XEN_HOST_PCI_REGION_TYPE_MEM_64)) {
+            region = &s->bases[index - 1];
+            if (region->bar_flag != XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UPPER) {
+                return XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UPPER;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* check unused BAR */
+    r = &d->io_regions[index];
+    if (r->size == 0) {
+        return XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UNUSED;
+    }
+
+    /* for ExpROM BAR */
+    if (index == PCI_ROM_SLOT) {
+        return XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_MEM;
+    }
+
+    /* check BAR I/O indicator */
+    if (s->real_device.io_regions[index].type & XEN_HOST_PCI_REGION_TYPE_IO) {
+        return XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_IO;
+    } else {
+        return XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_MEM;
+    }
+}
+
+static inline uint32_t base_address_with_flags(XenHostPCIIORegion *hr)
+{
+    if (hr->type & XEN_HOST_PCI_REGION_TYPE_IO) {
+        return hr->base_addr | (hr->bus_flags & ~PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_IO_MASK);
+    } else {
+        return hr->base_addr | (hr->bus_flags & ~PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_MEM_MASK);
+    }
+}
+
+static int xen_pt_bar_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTRegInfo *reg,
+                               uint32_t real_offset, uint32_t *data)
+{
+    uint32_t reg_field = 0;
+    int index;
+
+    index = xen_pt_bar_offset_to_index(reg->offset);
+    if (index < 0 || index >= PCI_NUM_REGIONS) {
+        XEN_PT_ERR(&s->dev, "Internal error: Invalid BAR index [%d].\n", index);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    /* set BAR flag */
+    s->bases[index].bar_flag = xen_pt_bar_reg_parse(s, reg);
+    if (s->bases[index].bar_flag == XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UNUSED) {
+        reg_field = XEN_PT_INVALID_REG;
+    }
+
+    *data = reg_field;
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_bar_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                               uint32_t *value, uint32_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint32_t valid_emu_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t bar_emu_mask = 0;
+    int index;
+
+    /* get BAR index */
+    index = xen_pt_bar_offset_to_index(reg->offset);
+    if (index < 0 || index >= PCI_NUM_REGIONS) {
+        XEN_PT_ERR(&s->dev, "Internal error: Invalid BAR index [%d].\n", index);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    /* use fixed-up value from kernel sysfs */
+    *value = base_address_with_flags(&s->real_device.io_regions[index]);
+
+    /* set emulate mask depend on BAR flag */
+    switch (s->bases[index].bar_flag) {
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_MEM:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_MEM_EMU_MASK;
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_IO:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_IO_EMU_MASK;
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UPPER:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_ALLF;
+        break;
+    default:
+        break;
+    }
+
+    /* emulate BAR */
+    valid_emu_mask = bar_emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+static int xen_pt_bar_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                uint32_t *val, uint32_t dev_value,
+                                uint32_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    XenPTRegion *base = NULL;
+    PCIDevice *d = &s->dev;
+    const PCIIORegion *r;
+    uint32_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t throughable_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t bar_emu_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t bar_ro_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t r_size = 0;
+    int index = 0;
+
+    index = xen_pt_bar_offset_to_index(reg->offset);
+    if (index < 0 || index >= PCI_NUM_REGIONS) {
+        XEN_PT_ERR(d, "Internal error: Invalid BAR index [%d].\n", index);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    r = &d->io_regions[index];
+    base = &s->bases[index];
+    r_size = xen_pt_get_emul_size(base->bar_flag, r->size);
+
+    /* set emulate mask and read-only mask values depend on the BAR flag */
+    switch (s->bases[index].bar_flag) {
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_MEM:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_MEM_EMU_MASK;
+        bar_ro_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_MEM_RO_MASK | (r_size - 1);
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_IO:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_IO_EMU_MASK;
+        bar_ro_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_IO_RO_MASK | (r_size - 1);
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UPPER:
+        bar_emu_mask = XEN_PT_BAR_ALLF;
+        bar_ro_mask = 0;    /* all upper 32bit are R/W */
+        break;
+    default:
+        break;
+    }
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = bar_emu_mask & ~bar_ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* check whether we need to update the virtual region address or not */
+    switch (s->bases[index].bar_flag) {
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_MEM:
+        /* nothing to do */
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_IO:
+        /* nothing to do */
+        break;
+    case XEN_PT_BAR_FLAG_UPPER:
+        if (cfg_entry->data) {
+            if (cfg_entry->data != (XEN_PT_BAR_ALLF & ~bar_ro_mask)) {
+                XEN_PT_WARN(d, "Guest attempt to set high MMIO Base Address. "
+                            "Ignore mapping. "
+                            "(offset: 0x%02x, high address: 0x%08x)\n",
+                            reg->offset, cfg_entry->data);
+            }
+        }
+        break;
+    default:
+        break;
+    }
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~bar_emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* write Exp ROM BAR */
+static int xen_pt_exp_rom_bar_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                        XenPTReg *cfg_entry, uint32_t *val,
+                                        uint32_t dev_value, uint32_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    XenPTRegion *base = NULL;
+    PCIDevice *d = (PCIDevice *)&s->dev;
+    uint32_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t throughable_mask = 0;
+    pcibus_t r_size = 0;
+    uint32_t bar_emu_mask = 0;
+    uint32_t bar_ro_mask = 0;
+
+    r_size = d->io_regions[PCI_ROM_SLOT].size;
+    base = &s->bases[PCI_ROM_SLOT];
+    /* align memory type resource size */
+    r_size = xen_pt_get_emul_size(base->bar_flag, r_size);
+
+    /* set emulate mask and read-only mask */
+    bar_emu_mask = reg->emu_mask;
+    bar_ro_mask = (reg->ro_mask | (r_size - 1)) & ~PCI_ROM_ADDRESS_ENABLE;
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = ~bar_ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~bar_emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Header Type0 reg static infomation table */
+static XenPTRegInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_header0[] = {
+    /* Vendor ID reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_VENDOR_ID,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFFFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_vendor_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Device ID reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_DEVICE_ID,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFFFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_device_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Command reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_COMMAND,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xF880,
+        .emu_mask   = 0x0740,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_cmd_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_cmd_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Capabilities Pointer reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_ptr_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Status reg */
+    /* use emulated Cap Ptr value to initialize,
+     * so need to be declared after Cap Ptr reg
+     */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_STATUS,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x06FF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0x0010,
+        .init       = xen_pt_status_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Cache Line Size reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CACHE_LINE_SIZE,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x00,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Latency Timer reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_LATENCY_TIMER,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x00,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Header Type reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_HEADER_TYPE,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0x00,
+        .init       = xen_pt_header_type_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Interrupt Line reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_INTERRUPT_LINE,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x00,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Interrupt Pin reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_INTERRUPT_PIN,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_irqpin_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 0 reg */
+    /* mask of BAR need to be decided later, depends on IO/MEM type */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_0,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 1 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_1,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 2 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_2,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 3 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_3,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 4 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_4,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* BAR 5 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_5,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_bar_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Expansion ROM BAR reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_ROM_ADDRESS,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x000007FE,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFFF800,
+        .init       = xen_pt_bar_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_long_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_exp_rom_bar_reg_write,
+    },
+    {
+        .size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+
+/*********************************
+ * Vital Product Data Capability
+ */
+
+/* Vital Product Data Capability Structure reg static infomation table */
+static XenPTRegInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_vpd[] = {
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_ptr_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    {
+        .size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+
+/**************************************
+ * Vendor Specific Capability
+ */
+
+/* Vendor Specific Capability Structure reg static infomation table */
+static XenPTRegInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_vendor[] = {
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_ptr_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    {
+        .size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+
+/*****************************
+ * PCI Express Capability
+ */
+
+static inline uint8_t get_capability_version(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                             uint32_t offset)
+{
+    uint8_t flags = pci_get_byte(s->dev.config + offset + PCI_EXP_FLAGS);
+    return flags & PCI_EXP_FLAGS_VERS;
+}
+
+static inline uint8_t get_device_type(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                      uint32_t offset)
+{
+    uint8_t flags = pci_get_byte(s->dev.config + offset + PCI_EXP_FLAGS);
+    return (flags & PCI_EXP_FLAGS_TYPE) >> 4;
+}
+
+/* initialize Link Control register */
+static int xen_pt_linkctrl_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                    XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                    uint32_t *data)
+{
+    uint8_t cap_ver = get_capability_version(s, real_offset - reg->offset);
+    uint8_t dev_type = get_device_type(s, real_offset - reg->offset);
+
+    /* no need to initialize in case of Root Complex Integrated Endpoint
+     * with cap_ver 1.x
+     */
+    if ((dev_type == PCI_EXP_TYPE_RC_END) && (cap_ver == 1)) {
+        *data = XEN_PT_INVALID_REG;
+    }
+
+    *data = reg->init_val;
+    return 0;
+}
+/* initialize Device Control 2 register */
+static int xen_pt_devctrl2_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                    XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                    uint32_t *data)
+{
+    uint8_t cap_ver = get_capability_version(s, real_offset - reg->offset);
+
+    /* no need to initialize in case of cap_ver 1.x */
+    if (cap_ver == 1) {
+        *data = XEN_PT_INVALID_REG;
+    }
+
+    *data = reg->init_val;
+    return 0;
+}
+/* initialize Link Control 2 register */
+static int xen_pt_linkctrl2_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                     XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                                     uint32_t *data)
+{
+    uint8_t cap_ver = get_capability_version(s, real_offset - reg->offset);
+    uint32_t reg_field = 0;
+
+    /* no need to initialize in case of cap_ver 1.x */
+    if (cap_ver == 1) {
+        reg_field = XEN_PT_INVALID_REG;
+    } else {
+        /* set Supported Link Speed */
+        uint8_t lnkcap = pci_get_byte(s->dev.config + real_offset - reg->offset
+                                      + PCI_EXP_LNKCAP);
+        reg_field |= PCI_EXP_LNKCAP_SLS & lnkcap;
+    }
+
+    *data = reg_field;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* PCI Express Capability Structure reg static infomation table */
+static XenPTRegInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_pcie[] = {
+    /* Next Pointer reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_ptr_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Device Capabilities reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_EXP_DEVCAP,
+        .size       = 4,
+        .init_val   = 0x00000000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x1FFCFFFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0x10000000,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.dw.read  = xen_pt_long_reg_read,
+        .u.dw.write = xen_pt_long_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Device Control reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_EXP_DEVCTL,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x2810,
+        .ro_mask    = 0x8400,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Link Control reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_EXP_LNKCTL,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFC34,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_linkctrl_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Device Control 2 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = 0x28,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFFE0,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_devctrl2_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Link Control 2 reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = 0x30,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xE040,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFFFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_linkctrl2_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    {
+        .size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+
+/*********************************
+ * Power Management Capability
+ */
+
+/* read Power Management Control/Status register */
+static int xen_pt_pmcsr_reg_read(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, XenPTReg *cfg_entry,
+                                 uint16_t *value, uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t valid_emu_mask = reg->emu_mask;
+
+    valid_emu_mask |= PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK | PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET;
+
+    valid_emu_mask = valid_emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *value = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*value, cfg_entry->data, ~valid_emu_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+/* write Power Management Control/Status register */
+static int xen_pt_pmcsr_reg_write(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTReg *cfg_entry, uint16_t *val,
+                                  uint16_t dev_value, uint16_t valid_mask)
+{
+    XenPTRegInfo *reg = cfg_entry->reg;
+    uint16_t emu_mask = reg->emu_mask;
+    uint16_t writable_mask = 0;
+    uint16_t throughable_mask = 0;
+
+    emu_mask |= PCI_PM_CTRL_STATE_MASK | PCI_PM_CTRL_NO_SOFT_RESET;
+
+    /* modify emulate register */
+    writable_mask = emu_mask & ~reg->ro_mask & valid_mask;
+    cfg_entry->data = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, cfg_entry->data, writable_mask);
+
+    /* create value for writing to I/O device register */
+    throughable_mask = ~emu_mask & valid_mask;
+    *val = XEN_PT_MERGE_VALUE(*val, dev_value, throughable_mask);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* Power Management Capability reg static infomation table */
+static XenPTRegInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_pm[] = {
+    /* Next Pointer reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT,
+        .size       = 1,
+        .init_val   = 0x00,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xFF,
+        .init       = xen_pt_ptr_reg_init,
+        .u.b.read   = xen_pt_byte_reg_read,
+        .u.b.write  = xen_pt_byte_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* Power Management Capabilities reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_CAP_FLAGS,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0000,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xFFFF,
+        .emu_mask   = 0xF9C8,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_word_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_word_reg_write,
+    },
+    /* PCI Power Management Control/Status reg */
+    {
+        .offset     = PCI_PM_CTRL,
+        .size       = 2,
+        .init_val   = 0x0008,
+        .ro_mask    = 0xE1FC,
+        .emu_mask   = 0x8100,
+        .init       = xen_pt_common_reg_init,
+        .u.w.read   = xen_pt_pmcsr_reg_read,
+        .u.w.write  = xen_pt_pmcsr_reg_write,
+    },
+    {
+        .size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+
+/****************************
+ * Capabilities
+ */
+
+/* capability structure register group size functions */
+
+static int xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                    const XenPTRegGroupInfo *grp_reg,
+                                    uint32_t base_offset, uint8_t *size)
+{
+    *size = grp_reg->grp_size;
+    return 0;
+}
+/* get Vendor Specific Capability Structure register group size */
+static int xen_pt_vendor_size_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                   const XenPTRegGroupInfo *grp_reg,
+                                   uint32_t base_offset, uint8_t *size)
+{
+    *size = pci_get_byte(s->dev.config + base_offset + 0x02);
+    return 0;
+}
+/* get PCI Express Capability Structure register group size */
+static int xen_pt_pcie_size_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                 const XenPTRegGroupInfo *grp_reg,
+                                 uint32_t base_offset, uint8_t *size)
+{
+    PCIDevice *d = &s->dev;
+    uint8_t version = get_capability_version(s, base_offset);
+    uint8_t type = get_device_type(s, base_offset);
+    uint8_t pcie_size = 0;
+
+
+    /* calculate size depend on capability version and device/port type */
+    /* in case of PCI Express Base Specification Rev 1.x */
+    if (version == 1) {
+        /* The PCI Express Capabilities, Device Capabilities, and Device
+         * Status/Control registers are required for all PCI Express devices.
+         * The Link Capabilities and Link Status/Control are required for all
+         * Endpoints that are not Root Complex Integrated Endpoints. Endpoints
+         * are not required to implement registers other than those listed
+         * above and terminate the capability structure.
+         */
+        switch (type) {
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_ENDPOINT:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_LEG_END:
+            pcie_size = 0x14;
+            break;
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_RC_END:
+            /* has no link */
+            pcie_size = 0x0C;
+            break;
+            /* only EndPoint passthrough is supported */
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_ROOT_PORT:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_UPSTREAM:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_PCI_BRIDGE:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_PCIE_BRIDGE:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_RC_EC:
+        default:
+            XEN_PT_ERR(d, "Unsupported device/port type %#x.\n", type);
+            return -1;
+        }
+    }
+    /* in case of PCI Express Base Specification Rev 2.0 */
+    else if (version == 2) {
+        switch (type) {
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_ENDPOINT:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_LEG_END:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_RC_END:
+            /* For Functions that do not implement the registers,
+             * these spaces must be hardwired to 0b.
+             */
+            pcie_size = 0x3C;
+            break;
+            /* only EndPoint passthrough is supported */
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_ROOT_PORT:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_UPSTREAM:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_DOWNSTREAM:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_PCI_BRIDGE:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_PCIE_BRIDGE:
+        case PCI_EXP_TYPE_RC_EC:
+        default:
+            XEN_PT_ERR(d, "Unsupported device/port type %#x.\n", type);
+            return -1;
+        }
+    } else {
+        XEN_PT_ERR(d, "Unsupported capability version %#x.\n", version);
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    *size = pcie_size;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static const XenPTRegGroupInfo xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[] = {
+    /* Header Type0 reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id      = 0xFF,
+        .grp_type    = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU,
+        .grp_size    = 0x40,
+        .size_init   = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+        .emu_regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_header0,
+    },
+    /* PCI PowerManagement Capability reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id      = PCI_CAP_ID_PM,
+        .grp_type    = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU,
+        .grp_size    = PCI_PM_SIZEOF,
+        .size_init   = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+        .emu_regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_pm,
+    },
+    /* AGP Capability Structure reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_AGP,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x30,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* Vital Product Data Capability Structure reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id      = PCI_CAP_ID_VPD,
+        .grp_type    = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU,
+        .grp_size    = 0x08,
+        .size_init   = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+        .emu_regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_vpd,
+    },
+    /* Slot Identification reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_SLOTID,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x04,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* PCI-X Capabilities List Item reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_PCIX,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x18,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* Vendor Specific Capability Structure reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id      = PCI_CAP_ID_VNDR,
+        .grp_type    = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU,
+        .grp_size    = 0xFF,
+        .size_init   = xen_pt_vendor_size_init,
+        .emu_regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_vendor,
+    },
+    /* SHPC Capability List Item reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_SHPC,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x08,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* Subsystem ID and Subsystem Vendor ID Capability List Item reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_SSVID,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x08,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* AGP 8x Capability Structure reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id     = PCI_CAP_ID_AGP3,
+        .grp_type   = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_HARDWIRED,
+        .grp_size   = 0x30,
+        .size_init  = xen_pt_reg_grp_size_init,
+    },
+    /* PCI Express Capability Structure reg group */
+    {
+        .grp_id      = PCI_CAP_ID_EXP,
+        .grp_type    = XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU,
+        .grp_size    = 0xFF,
+        .size_init   = xen_pt_pcie_size_init,
+        .emu_regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_pcie,
+    },
+    {
+        .grp_size = 0,
+    },
+};
+
+/* initialize Capabilities Pointer or Next Pointer register */
+static int xen_pt_ptr_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                               XenPTRegInfo *reg, uint32_t real_offset,
+                               uint32_t *data)
+{
+    int i;
+    uint8_t *config = s->dev.config;
+    uint32_t reg_field = pci_get_byte(config + real_offset);
+    uint8_t cap_id = 0;
+
+    /* find capability offset */
+    while (reg_field) {
+        for (i = 0; xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_size != 0; i++) {
+            if (xen_pt_hide_dev_cap(&s->real_device,
+                                    xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_id)) {
+                continue;
+            }
+
+            cap_id = pci_get_byte(config + reg_field + PCI_CAP_LIST_ID);
+            if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_id == cap_id) {
+                if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_type == XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU) {
+                    goto out;
+                }
+                /* ignore the 0 hardwired capability, find next one */
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+
+        /* next capability */
+        reg_field = pci_get_byte(config + reg_field + PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT);
+    }
+
+out:
+    *data = reg_field;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*************
+ * Main
+ */
+
+static uint8_t find_cap_offset(XenPCIPassthroughState *s, uint8_t cap)
+{
+    uint8_t id;
+    unsigned max_cap = PCI_CAP_MAX;
+    uint8_t pos = PCI_CAPABILITY_LIST;
+    uint8_t status = 0;
+
+    if (xen_host_pci_get_byte(&s->real_device, PCI_STATUS, &status)) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+    if ((status & PCI_STATUS_CAP_LIST) == 0) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+
+    while (max_cap--) {
+        if (xen_host_pci_get_byte(&s->real_device, pos, &pos)) {
+            break;
+        }
+        if (pos < PCI_CONFIG_HEADER_SIZE) {
+            break;
+        }
+
+        pos &= ~3;
+        if (xen_host_pci_get_byte(&s->real_device,
+                                  pos + PCI_CAP_LIST_ID, &id)) {
+            break;
+        }
+
+        if (id == 0xff) {
+            break;
+        }
+        if (id == cap) {
+            return pos;
+        }
+
+        pos += PCI_CAP_LIST_NEXT;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int xen_pt_config_reg_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s,
+                                  XenPTRegGroup *reg_grp, XenPTRegInfo *reg)
+{
+    XenPTReg *reg_entry;
+    uint32_t data = 0;
+    int rc = 0;
+
+    reg_entry = g_new0(XenPTReg, 1);
+    reg_entry->reg = reg;
+
+    if (reg->init) {
+        /* initialize emulate register */
+        rc = reg->init(s, reg_entry->reg,
+                       reg_grp->base_offset + reg->offset, &data);
+        if (rc < 0) {
+            free(reg_entry);
+            return rc;
+        }
+        if (data == XEN_PT_INVALID_REG) {
+            /* free unused BAR register entry */
+            free(reg_entry);
+            return 0;
+        }
+        /* set register value */
+        reg_entry->data = data;
+    }
+    /* list add register entry */
+    QLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&reg_grp->reg_tbl_list, reg_entry, entries);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int xen_pt_config_init(XenPCIPassthroughState *s)
+{
+    int i, rc;
+
+    QLIST_INIT(&s->reg_grps);
+
+    for (i = 0; xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_size != 0; i++) {
+        uint32_t reg_grp_offset = 0;
+        XenPTRegGroup *reg_grp_entry = NULL;
+
+        if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_id != 0xFF) {
+            if (xen_pt_hide_dev_cap(&s->real_device,
+                                    xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_id)) {
+                continue;
+            }
+
+            reg_grp_offset = find_cap_offset(s, xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_id);
+
+            if (!reg_grp_offset) {
+                continue;
+            }
+        }
+
+        reg_grp_entry = g_new0(XenPTRegGroup, 1);
+        QLIST_INIT(&reg_grp_entry->reg_tbl_list);
+        QLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&s->reg_grps, reg_grp_entry, entries);
+
+        reg_grp_entry->base_offset = reg_grp_offset;
+        reg_grp_entry->reg_grp = xen_pt_emu_reg_grps + i;
+        if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].size_init) {
+            /* get register group size */
+            rc = xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].size_init(s, reg_grp_entry->reg_grp,
+                                                  reg_grp_offset,
+                                                  &reg_grp_entry->size);
+            if (rc < 0) {
+                xen_pt_config_delete(s);
+                return rc;
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].grp_type == XEN_PT_GRP_TYPE_EMU) {
+            if (xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].emu_regs) {
+                int j = 0;
+                XenPTRegInfo *regs = xen_pt_emu_reg_grps[i].emu_regs;
+                /* initialize capability register */
+                for (j = 0; regs->size != 0; j++, regs++) {
+                    /* initialize capability register */
+                    rc = xen_pt_config_reg_init(s, reg_grp_entry, regs);
+                    if (rc < 0) {
+                        xen_pt_config_delete(s);
+                        return rc;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+/* delete all emulate register */
+void xen_pt_config_delete(XenPCIPassthroughState *s)
+{
+    struct XenPTRegGroup *reg_group, *next_grp;
+    struct XenPTReg *reg, *next_reg;
+
+    /* free all register group entry */
+    QLIST_FOREACH_SAFE(reg_group, &s->reg_grps, entries, next_grp) {
+        /* free all register entry */
+        QLIST_FOREACH_SAFE(reg, &reg_group->reg_tbl_list, entries, next_reg) {
+            QLIST_REMOVE(reg, entries);
+            g_free(reg);
+        }
+
+        QLIST_REMOVE(reg_group, entries);
+        g_free(reg_group);
+    }
+}