[RFC,v5,01/16] doc/opal-uv-abi.rst
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Message ID 20200227204023.22125-2-grimm@linux.ibm.com
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Ryan Grimm Feb. 27, 2020, 8:40 p.m. UTC
Signed-off-by: Ryan Grimm <grimm@linux.ibm.com>
---
 doc/opal-uv-abi.rst | 423 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 423 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 doc/opal-uv-abi.rst

Comments

Thiago Jung Bauermann March 26, 2020, 1:48 a.m. UTC | #1
Hello Ryan,

Ryan Grimm <grimm@linux.ibm.com> writes:

> +Syntax
> +~~~~~~
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +        long ucall(unsigned long UV_READ_SCOM,
> +                unsigned long *retbuf,
> +                u64 partid,
> +                u64 pcb_addr)

Just one nit here: perhaps remove the "unsigned long" from the
UV_READ_SCOM constant? Despite it being in upper case, the type
information makes it look like it's a variable.

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/doc/opal-uv-abi.rst b/doc/opal-uv-abi.rst
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..bf91e730
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/opal-uv-abi.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,423 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 OR GPL-2.0-or-later
+
+=================
+OPAL UV ABI (RFC)
+=================
+
+.. contents::
+    :depth: 3
+
+.. sectnum::
+    :depth: 3
+
+This document describes the function calling interface between OPAL
+and the Ultravisor.
+
+Protected Execution Facility
+############################
+
+Protected Execution Facility (PEF) is an architectural change for
+POWER 9 that enables Secure Virtual Machines (SVMs). When enabled,
+PEF adds a new higher privileged mode, called Ultravisor mode, to
+POWER architecture. Along with the new mode there is new firmware
+called the Protected Execution Ultravisor (or Ultravisor for short).
+Ultravisor mode is the highest privileged mode in POWER architecture.
+
++------------------+
+| Privilege States |
++==================+
+|  Problem         |
++------------------+
+|  Supervisor      |
++------------------+
+|  Hypervisor      |
++------------------+
+|  Ultravisor      |
++------------------+
+
+PEF protects SVMs from the hypervisor, privileged users, and other
+VMs in the system. SVMs are protected while at rest and can only be
+executed by an authorized machine. All virtual machines utilize
+hypervisor services. The Ultravisor filters calls between the SVMs
+and the hypervisor to assure that information does not accidentally
+leak. All hypercalls except H_RANDOM are reflected to the hypervisor.
+H_RANDOM is not reflected to prevent the hypervisor from influencing
+random values in the SVM.
+
+To support this there is a refactoring of the ownership of resources
+in the CPU. Some of the resources which were previously hypervisor
+privileged are now ultravisor privileged.
+
+Hardware
+========
+
+The hardware changes include the following:
+
+* There is a new bit in the MSR that determines whether the current
+  process is running in secure mode, MSR(S) bit 41. MSR(S)=1, process
+  is in secure mode, MSR(s)=0 process is in normal mode.
+
+* The MSR(S) bit can only be set by the Ultravisor.
+
+* HRFID cannot be used to set the MSR(S) bit. If the hypervisor needs
+  to return to a SVM it must use an ultracall. It can determine if
+  the VM it is returning to is secure.
+
+* There is a new Ultravisor privileged register, SMFCTRL, which has an
+  enable/disable bit SMFCTRL(E).
+
+* The privilege of a process is now determined by three MSR bits,
+  MSR(S, HV, PR). In each of the tables below the modes are listed
+  from least privilege to highest privilege. The higher privilege
+  modes can access all the resources of the lower privilege modes.
+
+**Secure Mode MSR Settings**
+
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| S | HV| PR|Privilege      |
++===+===+===+===============+
+| 1 | 0 | 1 | Problem       |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 1 | 0 | 0 | Privileged(OS)|
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 1 | 1 | 0 | Ultravisor    |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 1 | 1 | 1 | Reserved      |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+
+**Normal Mode MSR Settings**
+
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| S | HV| PR|Privilege      |
++===+===+===+===============+
+| 0 | 0 | 1 | Problem       |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 0 | 0 | 0 | Privileged(OS)|
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 0 | 1 | 0 | Hypervisor    |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+| 0 | 1 | 1 | Problem (HV)  |
++---+---+---+---------------+
+
+* Memory is partitioned into secure and normal memory. Only processes
+  that are running in secure mode can access secure memory.
+
+* The hardware does not allow anything that is not running secure to
+  access secure memory. This means that the Hypervisor cannot access
+  the memory of the SVM without using an ultracall (asking the
+  Ultravisor). The Ultravisor will only allow the hypervisor to see
+  the SVM memory encrypted.
+
+* I/O systems are not allowed to directly address secure memory. This
+  limits the SVMs to virtual I/O only.
+
+* The architecture allows the SVM to share pages of memory with the
+  hypervisor that are not protected with encryption. However, this
+  sharing must be initiated by the SVM.
+
+* When a process is running in secure mode all hypercalls
+  (syscall lev=1) are reflected to the Ultravisor.
+
+* When a process is in secure mode all interrupts go to the
+  Ultravisor.
+
+* The following resources have become Ultravisor privileged and
+  require an Ultravisor interface to manipulate:
+
+        * Processor configurations registers (SCOMs).
+
+        * Stop state information.
+
+        * The debug registers CIABR, DAWR, and DAWRX become Ultravisor
+          resources when SMFCTRL(D) is set. If SMFCTRL(D) is not set they do
+          not work in secure mode. When set, reading and writing requires
+          an Ultravisor call, otherwise that will cause a Hypervisor Emulation
+          Assistance interrupt.
+
+        * PTCR and partition table entries (partition table is in secure
+          memory). An attempt to write to PTCR will cause a Hypervisor
+          Emulation Assitance interrupt.
+
+        * LDBAR (LD Base Address Register) and IMC (In-Memory Collection)
+          non-architected registers. An attempt to write to them will cause a
+          Hypervisor Emulation Assistance interrupt.
+
+        * Paging for an SVM, sharing of memory with Hypervisor for an SVM.
+          (Including Virtual Processor Area (VPA) and virtual I/O).
+
+Software/Microcode
+==================
+
+The software changes include:
+
+* When the UV_ESM ultracall is made the Ultravisor copies the VM into
+  secure memory, decrypts the verification information, and checks the
+  integrity of the SVM. If the integrity check passes the Ultravisor
+  passes control in secure mode.
+
+The Ultravisor offers new services to the hypervisor and SVMs. These
+are accessed through ultracalls.
+
+Terminology
+===========
+
+* Hypercalls: special system calls used to request services from
+  Hypervisor.
+
+* Normal memory: Memory that is accessible to Hypervisor.
+
+* Normal page: Page backed by normal memory and available to
+  Hypervisor.
+
+* Secure memory: Memory that is accessible only to Ultravisor and
+  SVMs.
+
+* Secure page: Page backed by secure memory and only available to
+  Ultravisor and SVM.
+
+* SVM: Secure Virtual Machine.
+
+* Ultracalls: special system calls used to request services from
+  Ultravisor.
+
+Ultravisor Initialization
+#########################
+
+Secure Memory
+=============
+
+Skiboot parses secure memory from the HDAT tables and creates the secure-memory
+and ibm,ultravisor device tree nodes.  secure-memory similar to a memory@ node
+except the device_type is "secure_memory". For example:
+
+.. code-block:: dts
+
+        secure-memory@100fe00000000 {
+                device_type = "secure_memory";
+                compatible = "ibm,secure_memory";
+                ibm,chip-id = <0>;
+                reg = < 0x100fe 0x0 0x2 0x0>;
+        }
+
+Regions of secure memory will be reserved by hostboot such as OCC, HOMER, and
+SBE.  Skiboot will use the existing reserve infrastructure to reserve them.
+For example:
+
+.. code-block::
+
+        ibm,HCODE@100fffcaf0000
+        ibm,OCC@100fffcdd0000
+        ibm,RINGOVD@100fffcae0000
+        ibm,WOFDATA@100fffcb90000
+        ibm,arch-reg-data@100fffd700000
+        ibm,hbrt-code-image@100fffcec0000
+        ibm,hbrt-data@100fffd420000
+        ibm,homer-image@100fffd800000
+        ibm,homer-image@100fffdc00000
+        ibm,occ-common-area@100ffff800000
+        ibm,sbe-comm@100fffce90000
+        ibm,sbe-comm@100fffceb0000
+        ibm,sbe-ffdc@100fffce80000
+        ibm,sbe-ffdc@100fffcea0000
+        ibm,secure-crypt-algo-code@100fffce70000
+        ibm,uvbwlist@100fffcad0000
+
+For Mambo, ultra.tcl creates the secure-memory device tree node and the
+ibm,ultravisor device tree node in external/mambo/skiboot.tcl.  Secure memory
+is currently defined as the bottom half of the total the size of memory.  Mambo
+has no protection on secure memory, so a watchpoint could be used to ensure
+Skiboot does not touch secure memory.
+
+For BML, the BML script parses secure memory from the Cronus config file and
+creates the secure-memory and ibm,ultravisor device tree nodes.
+
+In all cases, the console log should indicate secure memory has been found and
+added to the device tree.  For example:
+
+.. code-block::
+
+        [   68.235326307,5] UV: Secure memory range added to DT [0x0001000e00000000..0x001001000000000]
+
+Loading The Ultravisor
+======================
+
+Skiboot uses secure and trusted boot to load and verify the compressed UV image
+from the PNOR into regular memory.  It unpacks the UV into regular memory in
+the function ``init_uv``.
+
+``init_uv`` finds the UV node in the device tree via the "ibm,ultravisor"
+compatible property.  For example:
+
+.. code-block:: dts
+
+        ibm,ultravisor {
+                compatible = "ibm,ultravisor";
+                #address-cells = <0x02>;
+                #size-cells = <0x02>;
+
+                firmware@200000000 {
+                        compatible = "ibm,uv-firmware";
+                        reg = <0x02 0x00 0xf677f>;
+                        memcons = <0x00 0x3022d030>;
+                        sys-fdt = <0x00 0x30509068>;
+                        uv-fdt = <0x02 0x200000>;
+                };
+        };
+
+Skiboot creates ibm,ultravisor and the reg property in hdata/spira.c.
+
+Mambo and BML use scripts to put the ultra image directly in regular memory and
+a reserve is created named ibm,uv-firmware.
+
+Starting The Ultravisor
+=======================
+
+Skiboot starts the UV in ``main_cpu_entry`` before the kernel is loaded and booted.
+Skiboot creates a job on all threads and sends them to ``start_uv`` in asm/head.S.
+This function's prototype is:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+        /**
+        * @brief Start UV.
+        *
+        * @param uv_load_addr Load address of ultravisor.
+        * @param sys_fdt Pointer to system fdt
+        *
+        * @return 0 on success, else a negative error code on failure.
+        */
+        u64 start_uv(u64 uv_load_addr, void *sys_fdt)
+
+The sys_fdt allows passing information to the UV, such as the location of the
+memory consolde ultravisor fdt and is easy to extend.
+
+The ``uv_fdt`` is constructed in secure memory.  It is allocated after the
+ultravisor image at ``uv_base_addr + UV_LOAD_MAX_SIZE``.  This allows the
+ultravisor to load at start of the first secure memory range and recover the
+memory allocated to ``uv_fdt``.
+
+.. code-block:: dts
+
+        ibm,uv-fdt {
+                 compatible = "ibm,uv-fdt";
+                 wrapping-key-password = "gUMShz6l2x4O9IeHrvBSuBR0FYANZTYK";
+        };
+
+The UV parses ``sys_fdt``, creates internal structures, and threads return in
+hypervisor privilege moded.
+
+If successful, skiboot sets a variable named ``uv_present`` to true.  Skiboot
+uses this variable to dermine if the UV is initialized and ready to perform
+ucalls.
+
+uv_base_addr is used by skiboot to know where to jump to.
+
+Ultravisor Failed Start Recovery
+================================
+
+If the ultravisor fails to start it will return a error code to init_uv.
+init_uv will print error messages to the skiboot log and attempt to free
+structures associated with the ultravisor.
+
+Skiboot will continue to be in ultravisor privilege mode, and will need to
+perform a recovery action.
+
+[**TODO**: Need to describe the steps for Ultravisor load failure recovery action.]
+
+Ultracalls
+##########
+
+Ultravisor calls ABI
+====================
+
+This section describes Ultravisor calls (ultracalls) needed by skiboot.
+The ultracalls allow the skiboot to request services from the
+Ultravisor such as initializing a chip unit via XSCOM.
+
+The specific service needed from an ultracall is specified in register
+R3 (the first parameter to the ultracall). Other parameters to the
+ultracall, if any, are specified in registers R4 through R12.
+
+Return value of all ultracalls is in register R3. Other output values
+from the ultracall, if any, are returned in registers R4 through R12.
+
+Each ultracall returns specific error codes, applicable in the context
+of the ultracall. However, like with the PowerPC Architecture Platform
+Reference (PAPR), if no specific error code is defined for a
+particular situation, then the ultracall will fallback to an erroneous
+parameter-position based code. i.e U_PARAMETER, U_P2, U_P3 etc
+depending on the ultracall parameter that may have caused the error.
+
+For now this only covers ultracalls currently implemented and being used by
+skiboot but others can be added here when it makes sense.
+
+The full specification for all ultracalls will eventually be made available in
+the public/OpenPower version of the PAPR specification.
+
+Ultracalls used by Skiboot
+==========================
+
+UV_READ_SCOM
+------------
+
+Perform an XSCOM read and put the value in a buffer.
+
+Syntax
+~~~~~~
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+        long ucall(unsigned long UV_READ_SCOM,
+                unsigned long *retbuf,
+                u64 partid,
+                u64 pcb_addr)
+
+Return values
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+* U_SUCCESS     on success.
+* U_PERMISSION  if called from VM context.
+* U_PARAMETER   if invalid partiton or address.
+* U_BUSY        if unit is busy, need to retry.
+* U_XSCOM_CHIPLET_OFF   if cpu is asleep.
+* U_XSCOM_PARTIAL_GOOD  if partial good.
+* U_XSCOM_ADDR_ERROR    if address error.
+* U_XSCOM_CLOCK_ERROR   if clock error.
+* U_XSCOM_PARITY_ERROR  if parity error.
+* U_XSCOM_TIMEOUT       if timeout.
+
+UV_WRITE_SCOM
+-------------
+
+Perform an XSCOM write.
+
+Syntax
+~~~~~~
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+        long ucall(unsigned long UV_WRITE_SCOM,
+                u64 partid,
+                u64 pcb_addr,
+                u64 val)
+
+Return values
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+One of the following values:
+
+* U_SUCCESS     on success.
+* U_PERMISSION  if called from VM context.
+* U_PARAMETER   if invalid partiton.
+* U_BUSY        if unit is busy, need to retry.
+* U_XSCOM_CHIPLET_OFF   if cpu is asleep.
+* U_XSCOM_PARTIAL_GOOD  if partial good.
+* U_XSCOM_ADDR_ERROR    if address error.
+* U_XSCOM_CLOCK_ERROR   if clock error.
+* U_XSCOM_PARITY_ERROR  if parity error.
+* U_XSCOM_TIMEOUT       if timeout.
+
+References
+##########
+
+.. [1] `Supporting Protected Computing on IBM Power Architecture <https://developer.ibm.com/articles/l-support-protected-computing/>`_